A small ventricular septal defect may never cause any problems. Larger defects can cause a range of disabilities — from mild to life-threatening. Treatment can prevent many complications.
If a large ventricular septal defect goes untreated, increased blood flow to the lungs causes high blood pressure in the lung arteries (pulmonary hypertension). Over time, permanent damage to the lung arteries develops and the pulmonary hypertension can become irreversible.
This complication, called Eisenmenger's syndrome, usually develops in early childhood. In people with Eisenmenger's syndrome, a significant portion of blood flows through the ventricular septal defect from the right ventricle to the left and bypasses the lungs. This means deoxygenated blood is pumped to the body and leads to a bluish discoloration of the lips, fingers and toes (cyanosis) and other complications. Once a person has Eisenmenger's syndrome, it's too late to surgically repair the hole because irreversible damage to the lung arteries has already occurred.
Other complications may include:
- Heart failure. The increased blood flow through the heart due to a ventricular septal defect can also lead to heart failure, a chronic condition in which the heart can't pump effectively.
- Endocarditis. People with a ventricular septal defect are at increased risk of an infection of the heart (endocarditis).
- Stroke. People with large defects, especially occurring with Eisenmenger's syndrome, are at risk of a stroke due to a blood clot passing through the hole in the heart and going to the brain.
- Other heart problems. Ventricular septal defects can also lead to abnormal heart rhythms and valve problems.
Ventricular septal defect and pregnancy
Becoming pregnant is often a concern for women born with a heart defect. Having a repaired ventricular septal defect without any complications or having a very small defect doesn't pose any additional risk in pregnancy. However, having an unrepaired larger defect, heart failure, cyanosis or other heart defects poses a high risk to both mother and fetus. Women with Eisenmenger's syndrome are at the highest risk of complications. Doctors strongly advise these women not to become pregnant.
Any woman with a congenital heart defect, repaired or not, who is considering pregnancy should talk beforehand with a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of heart conditions (cardiologist). This is especially important if you're taking medications. It's also important to see both an obstetrician and a cardiologist during pregnancy.
Oct. 26, 2011
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- More information for parents of children with VSD. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/Ventricular-Septal-Defect-VSD_UCM_307041_Article.jsp. Accessed Aug. 3, 2011.
- More information for adults with VSD. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/Ventricular-Septal-Defect-VSD_UCM_307041_Article.jsp. Accessed Aug. 3, 2011.
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- Dummer KB, et al. Management of isolated ventricular septal defects in infants and children. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Aug. 2, 2011.
- Nishimura RA. ACC/AHA guideline update on valvular heart disease: Focused update on infective endocarditis. Circulation. 2008;118:887.
- Genetic counseling. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/UnderstandYourRiskforCongenitalHeartDefects/Genetic-Counseling_UCM_307393_Article.jsp. Accessed Aug. 3, 2011.
- Ammash NM, et al. Ventricular septal defect in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Aug. 2, 2011.
- Cetta F (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 19, 2011.
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