Factors that can increase your risk of developing myocardial ischemia include:
July 25, 2015
- Tobacco. Smoking and long-term exposure to secondhand smoke can damage the inside walls of arteries. The damage can allow deposits of cholesterol and other substances to collect and slow blood flow in the coronary arteries. Smoking also increases the risk of blood clots in your coronary arteries.
- Diabetes. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are linked to an increased risk of myocardial ischemia, heart attack and other heart problems.
- High blood pressure. Over time, high blood pressure can accelerate atherosclerosis, resulting in damage to the coronary arteries.
- High blood cholesterol level. Cholesterol is a major part of the deposits that can narrow your coronary arteries. A high level of "bad" (low-density lipoprotein, or LDL) cholesterol in your blood may be due to an inherited condition or a diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol.
- High blood triglyceride level. Triglycerides, another type of blood fat, may also contribute to atherosclerosis.
- Obesity. Obesity is associated with diabetes, high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol levels.
- Waist circumference. A waist measurement of more than 35 inches (89 centimeters) for women and 40 inches (102 cm) in men increases the risk of high blood pressure and heart disease.
- Lack of physical activity. An inactive lifestyle contributes to obesity and is associated with higher cholesterol and triglyceride levels. People who get regular aerobic exercise have better cardiovascular fitness, which is associated with a decreased risk of myocardial ischemia and heart attack. Exercise also lowers high blood pressure.
- Mann DL, et al. Approach to the patient with chest pain. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014.
- Podrid PJ. Angina pectoris: Chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015.
- Deedwania PC. Silent myocardial ischemia: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015.
- Mann DL, et al. Coronary blood flow and myocardial ischemia. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014.
- Kannam JP. Stable ischemic heart disease: Overview of care. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 2, 2015.
- Jhamnani S, et al. Meta-analysis of the effects of lifestyle modifications on coronary and carotid artherosclerotic burden. American Journal of Cardiology. 2015;115:268.
- Sandesara PB, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation and risk reduction: Time to "rebrand and reinvigorate." Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015;65:389.
- Goldberger AL. Electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and infarction. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015.
- AskMayoExpert. How is chest pain due to coronary artery spasm diagnosed? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
- Johnson RJ. Nonpharmacologic prevention and treatment of hypertension. In: Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 11, 2015.
- Deedwania PC. Silent myocardial ischemia: Prognosis and therapy. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015.
- Deedwania PC. Silent myocardial ischemia: Diagnosis. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015.
- AskMayoExpert. Which patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) should be considered for angiography and revascularization? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
- Bope ET, et al. The cardiovascular system. In: Conn's Current Therapy 2015. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015.
- Simons M, et al. New therapies for angina pectoris. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 6, 2015.