Factors that may increase your risk of developing myocardial ischemia include:
March 06, 2014
- Tobacco. Both smoking and long-term exposure to secondhand smoke can damage the interior walls of arteries — including arteries in your heart — allowing deposits of cholesterol and other substances to collect and slow blood flow. Smoking also increases the risk of blood clots forming in the arteries that can cause myocardial ischemia.
- Diabetes. Diabetes is the inability of your body to adequately produce or respond to insulin properly. Insulin, a hormone secreted by your pancreas, allows your body to use glucose, which is a form of sugar from foods. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are linked to an increased risk of myocardial ischemia, heart attack and other heart problems.
- High blood pressure. Over time, high blood pressure can damage arteries that feed your heart by accelerating atherosclerosis. High blood pressure is more common in those who are obese. Eating a diet high in salt also may increase your risk of high blood pressure.
- High blood cholesterol or triglyceride levels. Cholesterol is a major part of the deposits that can narrow arteries throughout your body, including those that supply your heart. A high level of "bad" (low-density lipoprotein, or LDL) cholesterol in your blood is linked to an increased risk of atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia. A high LDL level may be due to an inherited condition or a diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol. A high level of triglycerides, another type of blood fat, may also contribute to atherosclerosis. However, a high level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol), which helps the body clean up excess cholesterol, is desirable and lowers your risk of heart attack.
- Lack of physical activity. An inactive lifestyle contributes to obesity and is associated with higher cholesterol and triglycerides and an increased risk of atherosclerosis. People who get regular aerobic exercise have better cardiovascular fitness, which is associated with a decreased risk of myocardial ischemia and heart attack. Exercise also lowers high blood pressure.
- Obesity. Obese people have a high proportion of body fat, often with a body mass index of 30 or higher. Obesity raises the risk of myocardial ischemia because it's associated with high blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and diabetes.
- Waist circumference. A waist circumference of more than 35 inches (88 centimeters) for women and 40 inches (102 cm) or more in men increases the risk of heart disease.
- Family history. If you have a family history of heart attack or coronary artery disease, you may be at increased risk of myocardial ischemia.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed Oct. 15, 2013.
- American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/PreventionTreatmentofHeartAttack/Silent-Ischemia-and-Ischemic-Heart-Disease_UCM_434092_Article.jsp. Accessed Oct. 17, 2013.
- Fihn SD, et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012;30:e44.
- Podrid PJ. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of ischemic chest pain. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 15, 2013.
- Fuster V, ed. et al. Hurst's The Heart. 13th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=5. Accessed Oct. 15, 2013.
- What are coronary heart disease risk factors? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hd/printall-index.html. Accessed Oct. 17, 2013.