Mechanical obstruction of the small intestine
Common causes of mechanical obstruction, in which something physically blocks the small intestine, include:
- Intestinal adhesions — bands of fibrous tissue in the abdominal cavity that can form after abdominal or pelvic surgery
- Hernias — portions of intestine that protrude into another part of your body
- Tumors in the small intestine
- Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease
- Twisting of the intestine (volvulus)
- Telescoping of the intestine (intussusception)
Mechanical obstruction of the colon
Mechanical obstruction is much less common in the colon. Potential causes include:
- Colon cancer
- Diverticulitis — a condition in which small, bulging pouches (diverticula) in the digestive tract become inflamed or infected
- Twisting of the colon (volvulus)
- Impacted feces
- Narrowing of the colon caused by inflammation and scarring (stricture)
Paralytic ileus can cause signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction, but doesn't involve a physical blockage. In paralytic ileus, muscle or nerve problems disrupt the normal coordinated muscle contractions of the intestines, slowing or stopping the movement of food and fluid through the digestive system.
Paralytic ileus can affect any part of the intestine. Causes can include:
Dec. 18, 2012
- Abdominal surgery
- Pelvic surgery
- Certain medications, including antidepressants and pain medications that affect muscles and nerves
- Muscle and nerve disorders, such as Parkinson's disease
- Feldman M, et al. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4160-6189-2..X0001-7--TOP&isbn=978-1-4160-6189-2&about=true&uniqId=229935664-2192. Accessed Oct. 22, 2012.
- Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05472-0..X0001-1--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05472-0&uniqId=230100505-57. Accessed Oct. 22, 2012.
- Bonin EA, et al. Update on the indications and use of colonic stents. Current Gastroenterology Reports. 2010;12:374.
- Baron TH. Acute colonic obstruction. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America. 2007;17:323.
- Intestinal pseudo-obstruction. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/diseases/pubs/intestinalpo/index.htm. Accessed Oct. 21, 2012.
- Abdominal adhesions. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/diseases/pubs/intestinaladhesions/index.htm. Accessed Oct. 21, 2012.
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