Child abuse occurs across all social and economic levels and ethnic groups. Factors that may increase a person's risk of becoming abusive include:
Oct. 23, 2012
- A history of being abused or neglected as a child
- Physical or mental illness, such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- Family crisis or stress, including domestic violence and other marital conflicts, single parenting, or young children in the family, especially several children under age 5
- A child in the family who is developmentally or physically disabled
- Financial stress or unemployment
- Social or extended family isolation
- Poor understanding of child development and parenting skills
- Alcoholism or other forms of substance abuse
- Set rules for Internet use. American Academy of Pediatrics. http://www.healthychildren.org/English/family-life/Media/Pages/Set-the-Rules-for-Internet-Use.aspx. Accessed Aug. 29, 2012.
- Position statement regarding physical punishment. American Psychological Association. http://apsa.org/About_APsaA/Position_Statements/Physical_Punishment.aspx. Accessed Aug. 29, 2012.
- What to know about child abuse. American Academy of Pediatrics. http://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/at-home/Pages/What-to-Know-about-Child-Abuse.aspx. Accessed Aug. 29, 2012.
- Kolko DJ, et al. Evaluation of the sustainability and clinical outcome of alternatives for families: A cognitive-behavioral therapy (AF-CBT) in a child protection center. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2011;35:105.
- Recognizing child abuse and neglect: Signs and symptoms. Child Welfare Information Gateway. http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/signs.cfm. Accessed Aug. 29, 2012.
- Understanding child maltreatment: Fact sheet 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/CM-factsheet-a.pdf. Accessed Aug. 29, 2012.
- Nanni V, et al. Meta-analysis of childhood maltreatment and outcome in depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2012;169:141.
- King DC, et al. Childhood maltreatment and psychiatric disorders among detained youths. Psychiatric Services. 2011;62:1430.
- Schechter DS. The developmental neuroscience of emotional neglect: Its consequences, and the psychosocial interventions that can reverse them. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2012;169:452.
- Thompson R, et al. Predictors of engagement with mental health services among mothers of children at risk of maltreatment. In press. Accessed Aug. 29, 2012.
- Putnam FW. Beyond sticks and stones. Psychiatry. 2010;167:1422.
- Strengthening families and communities: 2011 Resource guide. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/guide2011/guide.pdf. Accessed Aug. 29, 2012
- National child abuse statistics. Childhelp. http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics#abuse-conseq. Accessed Aug. 29, 2012.
- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 22, 2012.
- Billings ML (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 18, 2102.
- Frequently asked questions. Childhelp. http://www.childhelp.org/pages/faq. Accessed Oct. 19, 2012
- Contact us. Prevent Child Abuse America. http://www.preventchildabuse.org/contact_us.shtml. Accessed Oct. 19, 2012