Factors that may increase your risk of autonomic neuropathy include:
July 12, 2012
- Diabetes. Diabetes, especially poorly controlled diabetes, increases your risk of developing nerve damage, including autonomic neuropathy. The risk is greatest for people who have had the disease for more than 25 years and have difficulty controlling their blood sugar. Additionally, people with diabetes who are overweight or have high blood pressure or high cholesterol have a higher risk of autonomic neuropathy.
- Other diseases. A number of other diseases also increase your risk of autonomic neuropathy, including amyloidosis, cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, Parkinson's disease, and botulism.
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- Freeman R. Autonomic peripheral neuropathy. The Lancet. 2005;365:1259.
- Stevens MJ. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Boulton AJM, et al. Diabetic neuropathies: A statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:956.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=9146961. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Diabetic neuropathies: The nerve damage of diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/neuropathies/. Accessed May 21, 2012.
- Overview of the autonomic nervous system. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/print/neurologic_disorders/autonomic_nervous_system/overview_of_the_autonomic_nervous_system.html. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Philips JC, et al. Squatting, a posture test for studying cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolism. 2011;37:489.
- Bethanechol (prescribing information). Pomona, N.Y.: Barr Laboratories, Inc.; 2007. http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm?setid=80ee6156-18b8-45aa-9402-b40647173da8. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Detrol (prescribing information). New York, N.Y.: Pharmacia and Upjohn; 2012. http://labeling.pfizer.com/ShowLabeling.aspx?id=719. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Ditropan (prescribing information). Raritan, N.J.: Ortho McNeil Pharmaceuticals; 2011. http://www.janssenpharmaceuticalsinc.com/assets/ditropanxl.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Vinik AI, et al. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Circulation. 2007;115:387.
- Robinul and Robinul Forte (prescribing information). Atlanta, Ga.: Shionogi Pharma, Inc.; 2010. http://www.robinul.com/Robinul%20PI.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Shakher J, et al. Update on the management of diabetic polyneuropathies. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 2011;4:289.
- Wang CP, et al. A single-blinded, randomized pilot study evaluating effects of electroacupuncture in diabetic patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008;7:833.
- Sandroni P (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 29, 2012.
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