Coffee has a long history of being blamed for many ills — from stunting your growth to claims that it causes heart disease and cancer. But recent research indicates that coffee may not be so bad after all. So which is it — good or bad? The best answer may be that for most people the health benefits outweigh the risks.
Recent studies have generally found no connection between coffee and an increased risk of cancer or heart disease. In fact, most studies find an association between coffee consumption and decreased overall mortality and possibly cardiovascular mortality, although this may not be true in younger people who drink large amounts of coffee.
Why the apparent reversal in the thinking about coffee? Earlier studies didn't always take into account that known high-risk behaviors, such as smoking and physical inactivity, tended to be more common among heavy coffee drinkers at that time.
Studies have shown that coffee may have health benefits, including protecting against Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes and liver disease, including liver cancer. It also appears to improve cognitive function and decrease the risk of depression.
However, the research appears to bear out some risks. High consumption of unfiltered coffee (boiled or espresso) has been associated with mild elevations in cholesterol levels. And some studies found that two or more cups of coffee a day can increase the risk of heart disease in people with a specific — and fairly common — genetic mutation that slows the breakdown of caffeine in the body. So, how quickly you metabolize coffee may affect your health risk.
Although coffee may have fewer risks compared with benefits, keep in mind that other beverages, such as milk and some fruit juices, contain nutrients that coffee does not. Also, adding cream and sugar to your coffee adds more fat and calories. Some coffee drinks contain more than 500 calories.
Mar. 13, 2014
See more Expert Answers
- George SE, et al. A perception on health benefits of coffee. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2008;48:464.
- Higdon JV, et al. Coffee and health: A review of recent human research. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2006;46:101.
- Cornelis MC, et al. Coffee, caffeine and coronary heart disease. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 2007;10:745.
- Freedman ND, et al. Association of coffee drinking with total and cause-specific mortality. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012;366:1891.
- Lui J, et al. Association of coffee consumption with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2013;88:1066.
- O'Keefe JH, et al. Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2013;62:1043.
- Hensrud DD (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 26, 2014.
- Cornelis MC, et al. Coffee, CYP1A2 genotype, and risk of myocardial infarction. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2006;295:1135.
- Kabagambe EK. Benefits and risks of caffeine and caffeinated beverages. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 8, 2014.
- Starbucks drinks. Starbucks. http://www.starbucks.com/menu/drinks/. Accessed Jan. 9, 2014.