1. BA - Biology Pacific Lutheran University
  2. Internship - Phase 1-3 cardiac rehabilitation program; Dir. Larry Hamm, PhD North Memorial Medical Center
  3. MS - Exercise/Cardiopulmonary Physiology. Thesis: The Relationship of Plasma Lactate Levels to Changes in Ventilation and Training Intensities. St. Cloud State University
  4. Fellow - Pre-doctoral fellow; Dept. of Preventive Medicine University of Wisconsin, Madison
  5. Fellow - Research fellow; Div. of Anesthesia Research; Respiratory Muscle Laboratory Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  6. PhD - Respiratory Physiology and Biodynamics. Research Focus: Ventilatory control during exercise, Pulmonary system limitations during exercise. University of Wisconsin, Madison
  7. Internship - Clinical Exercise Physiologist, Div. Cardiovascular Disease; Cardiovascular Health Clinic Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine


  1. American Board of Internal Medicine - Internal Medicine
  2. American Board of Internal Medicine - Geriatric Medicine
  3. American College of Sports Medicine, Exercise Specialist

Academic rank

  1. Professor of Medicine
  2. Professor of Physiology


  • Heart and lung interdependence
  • Human performance in extreme environments
  • Hypoxia and hypobaria
  • Vasoregulation of the pulmonary circulation
  • Gas exchange
  • Lung mechanics
  • Ventilatory control
  • Non-traditional approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention


See a listing of publications on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine.


See a description of research activities.


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