1. Internship - Clinical Exercise Physiologist, Div. Cardiovascular Disease; Cardiovascular Health Clinic Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  2. Fellow - Research fellow; Div. of Anesthesia Research; Respiratory Muscle Laboratory Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  3. PhD - Respiratory Physiology and Biodynamics. Research Focus: Ventilatory control during exercise, Pulmonary system limitations during exercise. University of Wisconsin, Madison
  4. Fellow - Pre-doctoral fellow; Dept. of Preventive Medicine University of Wisconsin, Madison
  5. Internship - Phase 1-3 cardiac rehabilitation program; Dir. Larry Hamm, PhD North Memorial Medical Center
  6. MS - Exercise/Cardiopulmonary Physiology. Thesis: The Relationship of Plasma Lactate Levels to Changes in Ventilation and Training Intensities. St. Cloud State University
  7. BA - Biology Pacific Lutheran University


  1. Exercise Specialist, American College of Sports Medicine

Primary Appointment

  1. Cardiovascular Diseases

Academic rank

  1. Professor of Medicine
  2. Professor of Physiology


  • Heart and lung interdependence
  • Human performance in extreme environments
  • High altitude, hypoxia and hypobaria
  • Vasoregulation of the pulmonary circulation
  • Gas exchange
  • Lung mechanics
  • Ventilatory control
  • Non-traditional approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention


See my publications


See a description of research activities.


Mayo Clinic Footer