1. BA - Biology Pacific Lutheran University
  2. Internship - Phase 1-3 cardiac rehabilitation program; Dir. Larry Hamm, PhD North Memorial Medical Center
  3. MS - Exercise/Cardiopulmonary Physiology. Thesis: The Relationship of Plasma Lactate Levels to Changes in Ventilation and Training Intensities. St. Cloud State University
  4. Fellow - Pre-doctoral fellow; Dept. of Preventive Medicine University of Wisconsin, Madison
  5. Fellow - Research fellow; Div. of Anesthesia Research; Respiratory Muscle Laboratory Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  6. PhD - Respiratory Physiology and Biodynamics. Research Focus: Ventilatory control during exercise, Pulmonary system limitations during exercise. University of Wisconsin, Madison
  7. Internship - Clinical Exercise Physiologist, Div. Cardiovascular Disease; Cardiovascular Health Clinic Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine


  1. Exercise Specialist, American College of Sports Medicine

Academic rank

  1. Professor of Medicine
  2. Professor of Physiology


  • Heart and lung interdependence
  • Human performance in extreme environments
  • High altitude, hypoxia and hypobaria
  • Vasoregulation of the pulmonary circulation
  • Gas exchange
  • Lung mechanics
  • Ventilatory control
  • Non-traditional approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention


See a listing of publications on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine.


See a description of research activities.


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