概述

趾甲内生是指脚趾甲的一角或一侧长入柔软的肉中,是一种常见的状况。症状是疼痛、发红、肿胀,有时引发感染。趾甲内生通常会影响您的大脚趾。

通常您可以自行处理趾甲内生。如果疼痛严重或扩散,医生可采取措施帮您缓解不适,并可帮您避免出现趾甲内生并发症。

您如果患有糖尿病,或存在其他状况,会造成脚部血流较差,则有较高风险出现趾甲内生并发症。

症状

趾甲内生的症状包括:

  • 脚趾沿指甲的一侧或两侧疼痛和压痛
  • 脚趾甲周围发红
  • 脚趾甲周围肿胀
  • 脚趾甲周围组织受感染

何时应就诊

如果您有下列情况,请咨询医生:

  • 脚趾严重不适、化脓,或红肿看起来扩散
  • 患有糖尿病或其他导致足部血流不良的病症,并且出现足部疼痛或感染

When to see a doctor

See your health care provider if you:

  • Experience severe discomfort in a toe, pus or inflamed skin that seems to be spreading
  • Have diabetes or another condition that causes poor blood flow to the feet and you have a foot sore or infection

病因

导致趾甲内生的常见原因包括:

  • 穿着挤压脚趾的鞋子
  • 趾甲剪得太短或不直
  • 趾甲受伤
  • 趾甲异常弯曲

风险因素

Factors that increase your risk of ingrown toenails include:

  • Being an adolescent, when feet tend to perspire more, which softens the nail and skin
  • Having nail care habits that encourage the nail to grow into the skin, such as cutting the nails too short or rounding the corners
  • Having a reduced ability to care for your nails
  • Wearing shoes that constrict the toes
  • Participating in activities, such as running and kicking, that put your toes at risk of injury
  • Having a condition, such as diabetes, that causes poor blood flow

并发症

如果不加以治疗或未发现,趾甲内生可能感染下面的骨骼并导致严重的骨感染。

如果您患有糖尿病,并发症可能特别严重,这可能导致血流不畅并损害脚部神经。因此,轻微的脚伤(割伤、擦伤、鸡眼、老茧或趾甲内生)可能无法正常愈合而发生感染。难以愈合的开放性溃疡(足部溃疡)可能需要进行手术,以防止组织的腐烂和死亡(坏疽)。坏疽是由于您身体某个部位的血流中断所致。

预防

预防趾甲内生:

  • 齐头修剪脚指甲。不要将指甲修剪成与脚趾前部贴合的形状。如果您在美容院修脚,一定要告诉您的修脚师齐头修剪脚指甲。如果您患有疾病导致双脚供血不足,无法剪脚趾甲,请定期让修脚师帮您修剪指甲。
  • 保持脚指甲在中等长度。修剪脚指甲时使其与脚趾头平齐。如果您修剪得过短,鞋子压到脚趾会使得脚趾长进组织中。
  • 穿合脚的鞋。鞋子可能会向脚趾施加过多压力或挤压脚趾,导致脚指甲长进周围的组织中。如果脚出现神经损伤,您可能无法感觉到鞋子是否太紧。请购买和穿着合脚的鞋,最好是去专门适合于有足部问题的人的的鞋店。
  • 穿防护鞋。如果您的工作有伤害到脚趾的风险,请穿防护鞋,例如钢趾鞋。
  • 检查双脚。如果您有糖尿病,请每日检查双脚,查看是否有趾甲内生和其他脚部问题的体征。

Feb. 08, 2022
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