Although some people may ask for help, sometimes self-injury is discovered by family members or friends. Or a doctor doing a routine medical exam may notice signs, such as scars or fresh injuries.
There's no diagnostic test for self-injury. Diagnosis is based on a physical and psychological evaluation. You may be referred to a mental health professional with experience in treating self-injury for evaluation.
A mental health professional may also evaluate you for other mental health disorders that may be linked to self-injury, such as depression or personality disorders. If that's the case, evaluation may include additional tools, such as questionnaires or psychological tests.
There's no one best way to treat self-injuring behavior, but the first step is to tell someone so you can get help. Treatment is based on your specific issues and any related mental health disorders you might have, such as depression. Because self-injury can become a major part of your life, it's best to get treatment from a mental health professional experienced in self-injury issues.
If the self-injury behavior is associated with a mental health disorder, such as depression or borderline personality disorder, the treatment plan focuses on that disorder, as well as the self-injury behavior.
Treating self-injury behavior can take time, hard work and your own desire to recover.
Here's more information about treatment options.
Known as talk therapy or psychological counseling, psychotherapy can help you:
- Identify and manage underlying issues that trigger self-injuring behavior
- Learn skills to better manage distress
- Learn how to regulate your emotions
- Learn how to boost your self-image
- Develop skills to improve your relationships and social skills
- Develop healthy problem-solving skills
Several types of individual psychotherapy may be helpful, such as:
- Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps you identify unhealthy, negative beliefs and behaviors and replace them with healthy, adaptive ones
- Dialectical behavior therapy, a type of CBT that teaches behavioral skills to help you tolerate distress, manage or regulate your emotions, and improve your relationships with others
- Mindfulness-based therapies, which help you live in the present, appropriately perceive the thoughts and actions of those around you to reduce your anxiety and depression, and improve your general well-being
In addition to individual therapy sessions, family therapy or group therapy also may be recommended.
There are no medications to specifically treat self-injuring behavior. However, if you're diagnosed with a mental health disorder, such as depression or an anxiety disorder, your doctor may recommend antidepressants or other medications to treat the underlying disorder that's associated with self-injury. Treatment for these disorders may help you feel less compelled to hurt yourself.
If you injure yourself severely or repeatedly, your doctor may recommend that you be admitted to a hospital for psychiatric care. Hospitalization, often short term, can provide a safe environment and more-intensive treatment until you get through a crisis. Mental health day treatment programs also may be an option.
Lifestyle and home remedies
In addition to professional treatment, here are some important self-care tips:
- Stick to your treatment plan. Keep therapy appointments and take prescribed medications as directed.
- Recognize the situations or feelings that might trigger your desire to self-injure. Make a plan for other ways to soothe or distract yourself or to get support, so you're ready the next time you feel the urge to self-injure.
- Ask for help. Keep your doctor or mental health professional's phone number handy, and tell him or her about all incidents related to self-injury. Appoint a trusted family member or friend as the person you'll immediately contact if you have an urge to self-injure or if self-injuring behavior recurs.
- Take care of yourself. Learn how to include physical activity and relaxation exercises as a regular part of your daily routine. Eat healthy. Ask your doctor for advice if you have sleep problems, which can significantly affect your behavior.
- Avoid alcohol and recreational drugs. They affect your ability to make good decisions and can put you at risk of self-injury.
- Take appropriate care of your wounds if you injure yourself or seek medical treatment if needed. Call a family member or friend for help and support. Don't share instruments used for self-injury — that raises the risk of infectious disease.
Coping and support
If you or a loved one needs help in coping, consider the tips below. If there's a focus on thoughts of suicide, take action and get help immediately.
Coping tips if you self-injure include:
- Connect with others who can support you so you don't feel alone. For example, reach out to a family member or friend, contact a support group, or get in touch with your doctor or mental health professional.
- Avoid websites that support or glamorize self-injury. Instead, seek out sites that support your recovery efforts.
- Learn to express your emotions in positive ways. For example, to help balance your emotions and improve your sense of well-being, become more physically active, practice relaxation techniques, or participate in dance, art or music.
Coping tips if your loved one self-injures include:
- Get information. Learn more about self-injury to help you understand why it occurs and help you develop a compassionate but firm approach to helping your loved one stop this harmful behavior. Know the strategies and relapse prevention plan your loved one has developed with the therapist so you can encourage it.
- Try not to judge or criticize. Criticism, yelling, threats or accusations may increase the risk of self-injuring behavior. Offer support, praise efforts to express emotions in healthy ways and try to spend positive time together.
- Let your loved one know you care no matter what. Remind the person that he or she is not alone and that you're available to talk. Recognize that you may not change the behavior, but you can help the person find resources, identify coping strategies and offer support during treatment.
- Support the treatment plan. Encourage your loved one to take prescribed medication and stress the importance of keeping therapy appointments. Remove or limit access to matches, knives, razor blades or other items that may be used for self-injury.
- Share coping strategy ideas. Your loved one may benefit from hearing strategies you use when feeling distressed. You can also serve as a role model by using appropriate coping strategies.
- Find support. Consider talking to people who've gone through what you're going through. Share your own experiences with trusted family members or friends. Ask your loved one's doctor or mental health professional if there are local support groups for parents, family members or friends of people who self-injure, or talk to a counselor or therapist.
- Take care of yourself, too. Take some time to do the things you enjoy doing, and get adequate rest and physical activity.
Preparing for your appointment
Your first appointment may be with your family doctor, another health care provider, a school nurse or a counselor. But because self-injury often requires specialized mental health care, you may be referred to a mental health professional for evaluation and treatment.
Be ready to provide accurate, thorough and honest information about your situation and your self-injuring behavior. You may want to take a family member or friend along, if possible, for support and to help you remember information.
What you can do
To help prepare for your appointment, make a list of:
- Symptoms you've had, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for the appointment
- Key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes
- All medications, vitamins, herbs or other supplements that you're taking, including the dosages
- Questions to ask your doctor
Questions to ask your doctor may include:
- What treatments are available? Which do you recommend for me?
- What side effects are possible with that treatment?
- What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting?
- Are there medications that might help? Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?
- What should I do if I have an urge to self-injure between therapy sessions?
- What else can I do to help myself?
- How can I (or those around me) recognize that things may be getting worse?
- Can you suggest resources that would help me learn more about my condition and its treatment?
Don't hesitate to ask other questions during your appointment.
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:
- When did you first begin harming yourself?
- What methods do you use to harm yourself?
- How often do you cut or injure yourself?
- What feelings and thoughts do you have before, during and after self-injury?
- What seems to trigger your self-injury?
- What makes you feel better? What makes you feel worse?
- Do you have social networks or relationships?
- What emotional issues are you facing?
- How do you feel about your future?
- Have you had previous treatment for self-injury?
- Do you have suicidal thoughts when you're feeling down?
- Do you drink alcohol or use tobacco or recreational drugs?
Your doctor or mental health professional will ask additional questions based on your responses, symptoms and needs. Preparing and anticipating questions will help you make the most of your time with the doctor.