As part of regular well-child care, the doctor calculates your child's BMI and determines where it falls on the BMI-for-age growth chart. The BMI helps indicate if your child is overweight for his or her age and height.
Using the growth chart, your doctor determines your child's percentile, meaning how your child compares with other children of the same sex and age. For example, if your child is in the 80th percentile, it means that compared with other children of the same sex and age, 80 percent have a lower weight or BMI.
Cutoff points on these growth charts, established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, help identify children who are overweight and obese:
- BMI between 85th and 94th percentiles — overweight
- BMI 95th percentile or above — obesity
Because BMI doesn't consider things such as being muscular or having a larger than average body frame and because growth patterns vary greatly among children, your doctor also factors in your child's growth and development. This helps determine whether your child's weight is a health concern.
In addition to BMI and charting weight on the growth charts, the doctor evaluates:
- Your family's history of obesity and weight-related health problems, such as diabetes
- Your child's eating habits
- Your child's activity level
- Other health conditions your child may have
- Psychosocial history, including incidences of depression and sleep disturbances and sadness and whether your child has friends or is the target of bullying
Your child's doctor might order blood tests if he or she finds that your child is obese. These tests might include:
- A cholesterol test
- A blood sugar test
- Other blood tests to check for hormone imbalances, vitamin D deficiency or other conditions associated with obesity
Some of these tests require that your child not eat or drink anything before the test. Ask if your child needs to fast before a blood test and for how long.
Treatment for childhood obesity is based on your child's age and if he or she has other medical conditions. Treatment usually includes changes in your child's eating habits and physical activity level. In certain circumstances, treatment might include medications or weight-loss surgery.
Treatment for children who are overweight
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children older than 2 and adolescents whose weight falls in the overweight category be put on a weight-maintenance program to slow the progress of weight gain. This strategy allows the child to add inches in height but not pounds, causing BMI to drop over time into a healthier range.
Treatment for children who are obese
Children ages 6 to 11 who are obese might be encouraged to modify their eating habits for gradual weight loss of no more than 1 pound (or about 0.5 kilogram) a month. Older children and adolescents who are obese or severely obese might be encouraged to modify their eating habits to aim for weight loss of up to 2 pounds (or about 1 kilogram) a week.
The methods for maintaining your child's current weight or losing weight are the same: Your child needs to eat a healthy diet — both in terms of type and amount of food — and increase physical activity. Success depends largely on your commitment to helping your child make these changes.
Parents are the ones who buy groceries, cook meals and decide where the food is eaten. Even small changes can make a big difference in your child's health.
- When food shopping, choose fruits and vegetables. Cut back on convenience foods — such as cookies, crackers and prepared meals — which are often high in sugar, fat and calories. Always have healthy snacks available.
- Limit sweetened beverages. This includes those that contain fruit juice. These drinks provide little nutritional value in exchange for their high calories. They also can make your child feel too full to eat healthier foods.
- Limit fast food. Many of the menu options are high in fat and calories.
- Sit down together for family meals. Make it an event — a time to share news and tell stories. Discourage eating in front of a TV, computer or video game screen, which can lead to fast eating and lowered awareness of amount eaten.
- Serve appropriate portion sizes. Children don't need as much food as adults do. Allow your child to eat until he or she is full, even if that means leaving food on the plate. And remember, when you eat out, restaurant portion sizes are often significantly oversized.
A critical part of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, especially for children, is physical activity. It burns calories, strengthens bones and muscles, and helps children sleep well at night and stay alert during the day.
Good habits established in childhood help adolescents maintain healthy weights despite the hormonal changes, rapid growth and social influences that often lead to overeating. And active children are more likely to become fit adults.
To increase your child's activity level:
- Limit TV and recreational computer time. Time spent watching television or using computers, smartphones or tablets is known as screen time. Children younger than 18 months should avoid all screen time, except for video-chatting with family and friends. For older preschooolers, limit screen use to 1 hour per day of high-quality programming.
- Emphasize activity, not exercise. Children should be moderately to vigorously active for at least an hour a day. Your child's activity doesn't have to be a structured exercise program — the object is to get him or her moving. Free-play activities — such as playing hide-and-seek, tag or jump-rope — can be great for burning calories and improving fitness.
- Find activities your child likes. For instance, if your child is artistically inclined, go on a nature hike to collect leaves and rocks that your child can use to make a collage. If your child likes to climb, head for the nearest neighborhood jungle gym or climbing wall. If your child likes to read, then walk or bike to the neighborhood library for a book.
Medication might be prescribed for some adolescents as part of an overall weight-loss plan. The risks of taking a prescription medication over the long term are unknown, and the medication's effect on weight loss and weight maintenance for adolescents is still in question.
Weight-loss surgery may be an option for severely obese adolescents who have been unable to lose weight through lifestyle changes. However, as with any type of surgery, there are potential risks and long-term complications. Also, the long-term effects of weight-loss surgery on future growth and development are largely unknown.
Weight-loss surgery in adolescents is uncommon. But your doctor might recommend this surgery if your child's weight poses a greater health threat than do the potential risks of surgery. It's important that a child being considered for weight-loss surgery meet with a team of pediatric specialists, including a pediatric endocrinologist, psychologist and dietitian.
Weight-loss surgery isn't a miracle cure. It doesn't guarantee that an adolescent will lose all of his or her excess weight or be able to keep it off long term. And surgery doesn't replace the need for a healthy diet and regular physical activity.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Addressing a woman's health and weight before she conceives could lead to improvements in childhood obesity. If you're overweight and thinking of becoming pregnant, losing weight and eating well might affect your child's future. Eating well throughout pregnancy might also have a positive impact on your baby's later food choices.
To give your infant a healthy start, the World Health Organization recommends exclusively breast-feeding for 6 months.
If your child is overweight or obese, his or her best chance to achieve and maintain a healthy weight is to start eating a healthy diet and exercising more. Here are some steps you can take at home to help your child succeed:
- Be a role model. Choose healthy foods and active pastimes for yourself. If you need to lose weight, doing so will motivate your child to do likewise.
- Involve the whole family. Make healthy eating a priority and emphasize how important it is for everyone to be physically active. This avoids singling out the child who is overweight.
Coping and support
Parents play a crucial role in helping children who are obese feel loved and in control of their weight. Take advantage of every opportunity to build your child's self-esteem. Don't be afraid to bring up the topic of health and fitness, but do be sensitive that a child may view your concern as an insult. Talk to your kids directly, openly, and without being critical or judgmental.
In addition, consider the following:
- Avoid weight talk. Negative comments about your own, someone else's or your child's weight can be hurtful to your child, even if they're well-intended. Negative talk about weight can lead to poor body image. Instead, focus your conversation on healthy eating and positive body image.
- Discourage dieting and skipping meals. Instead, encourage and support healthy eating and increased physical activity.
- Find reasons to praise your child's efforts. Celebrate small, incremental changes in behavior but don't reward with food. Choose other ways to mark your child's accomplishments, such as going to the bowling alley or a local park.
- Talk to your child about his or her feelings. Help your child find ways other than eating to deal with emotions.
- Help your child focus on positive goals. For example, point out that he or she can now bike for more than 20 minutes without getting tired or can run the required number of laps in gym class.
- Be patient. Realize that an intense focus on your child's eating habits and weight can easily backfire, leading a child to overeat even more or possibly making him or her more prone to developing an eating disorder.
Preparing for your appointment
Your child's family doctor or pediatrician will probably make the initial diagnosis of childhood obesity. If your child has complications from being obese, you may be referred to additional specialists to help manage these complications.
Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment.
What you can do
When you make the appointment, ask if there's anything your child needs to do in advance, such as fasting before having certain tests and for how long. Make a list of:
- Your child's symptoms, if any
- Key personal information, including a family medical history and history of obesity
- All medications, vitamins or other supplements your child takes, including doses
- What your child typically eats in a week, and how much activity he or she gets
- Questions to ask your doctor
Bring a family member or friend along, if possible, to help you remember all the information you're given.
For childhood obesity, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:
- What other health problems is my child likely to develop?
- What are the treatment options?
- Are there medications that might help manage my child's weight and other health conditions?
- How long will treatment take?
- What can I do to help my child lose weight?
- Are there brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?
Don't hesitate to ask other questions you have.
What to expect from your doctor
Your child's doctor or other health provider is likely to ask you a number of questions about your child's eating and activity, including:
- What does your child eat in a typical day?
- How much activity does your child get in a typical day?
- What factors do you believe affect your child's weight?
- What diets or treatments, if any, have you tried to help your child lose weight?
- Are you ready to make changes in your family's lifestyle to help your child lose weight?
- What might prevent your child from losing weight?
- How often does the family eat together? Does the child help prepare the food?
- Does your child, or family, eat while watching TV, texting or using a computer?
What you can do in the meantime
If you have days or weeks before your child's scheduled appointment, keep a record of what your child eats and how much he or she exercises.