A cornea transplant, also called keratoplasty, is a surgical procedure to replace part of your cornea with corneal tissue from a donor. Your cornea is the transparent, dome-shaped surface of your eye that accounts for a large part of your eye's focusing power.

A cornea transplant can restore vision, reduce pain and improve the appearance of a damaged or diseased cornea.

Most cornea transplant procedures are successful. But cornea transplant carries a small risk of complications, such as rejection of the donor cornea.

A cornea transplant is most often used to restore vision to a person who has a damaged cornea. A cornea transplant may also relieve pain or other signs and symptoms associated with diseases of the cornea.

A number of conditions can be treated with a cornea transplant, including:

  • A cornea that bulges outward (keratoconus)
  • Fuchs' dystrophy
  • Thinning of the cornea
  • Cornea scarring, caused by infection or injury
  • Clouding of the cornea
  • Swelling of the cornea
  • Corneal ulcers, including those caused by infection
  • Complications caused by previous eye surgery

Cornea transplant is a relatively safe procedure. Still, a cornea transplant does carry a small risk of serious complications, such as:

  • Eye infection
  • Increased risk of clouding of the eye's lens (cataracts)
  • Pressure increase within the eyeball (glaucoma)
  • Problems with the stitches used to secure the donor cornea
  • Rejection of the donor cornea
  • Swelling of the cornea

Signs and symptoms of cornea rejection

In some cases, your body's immune system may mistakenly attack the donor cornea. This is called rejection, and it may require medical treatment or another cornea transplant.

Make an appointment with your eye doctor if you notice any signs and symptoms of rejection, such as:

  • Loss of vision
  • Pain
  • Redness
  • Sensitivity to light

Rejection occurs in about 20 percent of cornea transplants.

Before cornea transplant surgery, you will undergo:

  • A thorough eye exam. Your eye doctor looks for conditions that may cause complications after surgery.
  • Measurements of your eye. Your eye doctor determines what size donor cornea you need.
  • A review of all medications and supplements you're taking. You may need to stop taking certain medications or supplements before or after your cornea transplant.
  • Treatment for other eye problems. Unrelated eye problems, such as infection or inflammation, may reduce your chances of successful cornea transplant. Your eye doctor will work to treat those problems before your surgery.

Your doctor will discuss what to expect during the procedure and explain the risks of the procedure.

Finding a donor cornea

Most corneas used in cornea transplants come from deceased donors. Unlike with other organs, such as livers and kidneys, people needing cornea transplants generally will not need to endure long waits. That's because many people specifically request that their corneas be available for donation after they die, unless they have had certain conditions, so more corneas are available for transplantation compared with other organs.

Corneas may not be used from donors who had several conditions, such as certain central nervous system conditions, infections, and prior eye surgery or eye conditions, or from people who died from an unknown cause.

During your cornea transplant

On the day of your cornea transplant, you'll be given a sedative to help you relax and a local anesthetic to numb your eye. You won't be asleep during the surgery, but you shouldn't feel any pain.

During the most common type of cornea transplant (penetrating keratoplasty), your surgeon cuts through the entire thickness of the abnormal or diseased cornea to remove a small button-sized disc of corneal tissue. An instrument that acts like a cookie cutter (trephine) is used to make this precise circular cut.

The donor cornea, cut to fit, is placed in the opening. Your surgeon then uses a fine thread to stitch the new cornea into place. The stitches may be removed at a later visit when you see your eye doctor.

Procedures to transplant a portion of the cornea

With some types of cornea problems, a full-thickness cornea transplant isn't always the best treatment. Partial-thickness (lamellar) transplants may be used in certain situations. These types of procedures include:

  • Replacing the inner layer of the cornea. This procedure, called a deep lamellar transplant, replaces only the innermost layer of your cornea's five layers. A small incision is made in the side of your eyeball to allow for removal of your cornea's inner layer without damaging the outer layers. A donor graft replaces the removed portion.
  • Replacing the surface layers of the cornea. The outer layers of the cornea that have been damaged by certain diseases and conditions can be replaced using a procedure called surface lamellar transplant. These surface layers, too, can be removed and replaced with a donor graft.

After your cornea transplant

Once your cornea transplant is completed, you can expect to:

  • Receive several medications. Eyedrops and, occasionally, oral medications immediately after cornea transplant and continuing during your recovery will help control infection, swelling and pain.
  • Wear an eye patch. An eye patch may protect your eye as it heals after your surgery.
  • Protect your eye from injury. Plan to take it easy after your cornea transplant, and slowly work your way up to your normal activities, including exercise. For the rest of your life, you'll need to take extra precautions to avoid harming your eye.
  • Return for frequent follow-up exams. Expect frequent eye exams in which your doctor looks for complications in the first year after surgery.

Most people who receive a cornea transplant will have their vision at least partially restored. What you can expect after your cornea transplant depends on the reason for your surgery and your health.

Your risk of complications and cornea rejection continues for years after your cornea transplant. For this reason, expect to see your eye doctor annually. Cornea rejection can often be managed with medications.

Vision correction after surgery

Your vision may initially be worse than before your surgery as your eye adjusts to the new cornea. It may take several months for your vision to improve.

Once the outer layer of your cornea has healed — several weeks to several months after surgery — your eye doctor will work to make adjustments that can improve your vision, such as:

  • Correcting unevenness in your cornea (astigmatism). The stitches that hold the donor cornea in place on your eye may cause dips and bumps in your cornea, making your vision blurry in spots. Your doctor may correct some of this by releasing some stitches and tightening others.
  • Correcting vision problems. Refractive errors, such as nearsightedness and farsightedness, can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses or, in some cases, laser eye surgery.

Why choose Mayo Clinic for cornea transplant:

  • Experience and expertise. Mayo Clinic eye surgeons (ophthalmologists) have training in cornea surgery in addition to general ophthalmology. Mayo Clinic doctors perform about 165 cornea transplants each year.
  • Thorough screening. Mayo Clinic emphasizes a thorough evaluation and comprehensive review of your medical history to ensure that you will benefit from the appropriate cornea transplant surgery. This careful screening helps ensure the chances for a successful outcome of clearer vision.
  • Technology and treatments. Ophthalmologists at Mayo Clinic offer the most current technology and most advanced treatment options available for cornea transplant, including full-thickness cornea transplant and partial-thickness cornea transplant.
  • Research. Mayo Clinic researchers conduct studies of cornea function and transplant tissue survival and conduct clinical trials.

Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., is ranked high performing for ophthalmology by U.S. News & World Report.

At Mayo Clinic, we assemble a team of specialists who take the time to listen and thoroughly understand your health issues and concerns. We tailor the care you receive to your personal health care needs. You can trust our specialists to collaborate and offer you the best possible outcomes, safety and service.

Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit medical institution that reinvests all earnings into improving medical practice, research and education. We're constantly involved in innovation and medical research, finding solutions to improve your care and quality of life. Your doctor or someone on your medical team is likely involved in research related to your condition.

Our patients tell us that the quality of their interactions, our attention to detail and the efficiency of their visits mean health care — and trusted answers — like they've never experienced.

Why Choose Mayo Clinic

What Sets Mayo Clinic Apart

Mayo Clinic works with hundreds of insurance companies and is an in-network provider for millions of people. In most cases, Mayo Clinic doesn't require a physician referral. Some insurers require referrals or may have additional requirements for certain medical care. All appointments are prioritized on the basis of medical need.

Cornea transplants are performed for adults at Mayo Clinic in Arizona by ophthalmologists who have had training in cornea surgery.

For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 800-446-2279 (toll-free) 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mountain Standard Time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.

Cornea transplants are performed for adults at Mayo Clinic in Florida by ophthalmologists who have had training in cornea surgery.

For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 904-953-0853 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.

Cornea transplants are performed for adults and children at Mayo Clinic in Minnesota by ophthalmologists who have had training in cornea surgery.

For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 507-538-3270 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. Central time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.

See information on patient services at the three Mayo Clinic locations, including transportation options and lodging.

The Department of Ophthalmology at Mayo Clinic has a long history of research in cornea transplants. Mayo Clinic researchers have conducted detailed studies of corneal function.

Researchers conduct follow-up studies on people who have had cornea transplants to determine the treatment's long-term effects on the eye, and to study the advantages and disadvantages of different types of transplants such as lamellar or full-thickness transplants.

In addition, new methods and techniques of corneal transplantation are being developed and studied in the laboratory. Read more about cornea research at Mayo Clinic.

See a list of publications by Mayo Clinic doctors on cornea transplants on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine.

Jun. 28, 2014