I like to drink grapefruit juice but hear that it can interfere with some prescription medications. Is that true?
Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D.
Yes. Grapefruit and certain other citrus fruits, such as Seville oranges, can interfere with several kinds of prescription medications.
Don't take these interactions lightly. Some can cause potentially dangerous health problems. If you take prescription medication, ask with your doctor or pharmacist whether your medication interacts with grapefruit or other citrus products.
You may need to eliminate grapefruit products from your diet. Simply taking your medication and grapefruit product at different times doesn't stop the interaction. Alternately, you can ask your doctor if there's a comparable medication you can take that doesn't interact with grapefruit.
Problems arise because chemicals in the fruit can interfere with the enzymes that break down (metabolize) the medication in your digestive system. As a result, the medication may stay in your body for too short or too long a time. A medication that's broken down too quickly won't have time to work. On the other hand, a medication that stays in the body too long may build up to potentially dangerous levels.
The list of medications that can interact with grapefruit includes commonly prescribed medicines that:
- Fight infection
- Reduce cholesterol
- Treat high blood pressure
- Treat heart problems
- Prevent organ rejection in transplant recipients
Another potential problem is that some products may contain grapefruit but don't say so in the name or on the ingredients list. For example, numerous citrus-flavored soft drinks have been identified as possibly containing grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract.
Play it safe with prescription drugs. Always ask your doctor or pharmacist when you get a new prescription if it interacts with any foods or other medicines. If the answer is yes, ask whether you need to eliminate that food from your diet.
June 18, 2016
See more Expert Answers
- Rodriguez-Fragoso L, et al. Potential risks resulting from fruit/vegetable-drug interactions: Effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. Journal of Food Science. 2011;76:R112.
- Grapefruit. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed Nov. 17, 2015.
- Dolton MJ, et al. Fruit juices as perpetrators of drug interactions: The role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2012;92:622.
- Bailey DG, et al. Grapefruit-medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences? CMAJ. 2013;185:309.
- Auten AA, et al. Hidden source of grapefruit in beverages: Potential interaction with immunosuppressant medications. Hospital Pharmacy. 2013;48:489.
- Sheps SG (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 23, 2015.
- Grapefruit juice and medicine may not mix. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm292276.htm. Accessed Dec. 1, 2015.
- Zeratsky KA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 27, 2016.