Valley fever is the initial form of coccidioidomycosis infection. This initial, acute illness can develop into a more serious disease, including chronic and disseminated coccidioidomycosis.
Acute coccidioidomycosis (valley fever)
The initial, or acute, form of coccidioidomycosis is often mild, with few, if any, symptoms. When signs and symptoms do occur, they appear one to three weeks after exposure. They tend to resemble those of the flu, and can range from minor to severe, including:
- Chest pain
- Night sweats
- Joint aches
- Red, spotty rash
The rash that sometimes accompanies valley fever is made up of painful red bumps that may later turn brown. The rash mainly appears on your lower legs, but sometimes on your chest, arms and back. Others may have a raised red rash with blisters or eruptions that look like pimples.
If you don't become ill from valley fever, you may only find out you've been infected when you later have a positive skin or blood test or when small areas of residual infection (nodules) in the lungs show up on a routine chest X-ray. Although the nodules typically don't cause problems, they can look like cancer on X-rays.
If you do develop symptoms, especially severe ones, the course of the disease is highly variable. It can take months to fully recover, and fatigue and joint aches can last even longer. The severity of the disease depends on several factors, including your overall health and the number of fungus spores you inhale.
If the initial coccidioidomycosis infection doesn't completely resolve, it may progress to a chronic form of pneumonia. This complication is most common in people with weakened immune systems.
Signs and symptoms include:
- Low-grade fever
- Weight loss
- Chest pain
- Blood-tinged sputum (matter discharged during coughing)
- Nodules in the lungs
The most serious form of the disease, disseminated coccidioidomycosis, occurs when the infection spreads (disseminates) beyond the lungs to other parts of the body. Most often these parts include the skin, bones, liver, brain, heart, and the membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord (meninges).
The signs and symptoms of disseminated disease depend on which parts of your body are affected and may include:
- Nodules, ulcers and skin lesions that are more serious than the rash that sometimes occurs with other forms of the disease
- Painful lesions in the skull, spine or other bones
- Painful, swollen joints, especially in the knees or ankles
- Meningitis — an infection of the membranes and fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord
When to see a doctor
Seek medical care if you are over 60, have a weakened immune system, are pregnant, or are black or Filipino, and you develop the signs and symptoms of valley fever, especially if you:
- Live in or have recently traveled to an area where this disease is common
- Have symptoms that aren't improving
Be sure to tell your doctor if you've traveled to a place where valley fever is endemic and you have symptoms.
May 27, 2015
- Ferri FF. Coccidioidomycosis. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 23, 2015.
- Nimmer N, et al. Coccidioidomycosis. Pediatrics in Review. 2015;36:181.
- Nguyen C, et al. Recent advances in our understanding of the environmental, epidemiological, immunological, and clinical dimensions of coccidioidomycosis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2013;26:505.
- Wilken JA, et al. Coccidioidomycosis Among Cast and Crew Members at an Outdoor Television Filming Event — California, 2012. MMWR. 2014;63:321.
- Galgiani JN, et al. Primary coccidioidal infection. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 23, 2015.
- Longo DL, et al. Coccidioidomycosis. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed April 23, 2015.
- Coccidioidomycosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/coccidioidomycosis/index.html. Accessed April 23, 2015.
- Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Mycotic infections. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2014. 54th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2015. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed April 23, 2015.
- Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) — Jobs at risk. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/valleyfever/risk.html. Accessed April 30, 2015.
- Bennett JE, et al. Coccidioidomycosis. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2010. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 23, 2015.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.