Certain factors may contribute to vaginal atrophy, such as:
April 23, 2013
- Smoking. Cigarette smoking affects your blood circulation, resulting in the vagina and other tissues not getting enough oxygen. Smoking also reduces the effects of naturally occurring estrogens in your body. In addition, women who smoke typically experience an earlier menopause.
- No vaginal births. Researchers have observed that women who have never given birth vaginally are more likely to develop vaginal atrophy than women who have had vaginal deliveries.
- No sexual activity. Sexual activity, with or without a partner, increases blood flow and makes your tissues more elastic.
- AskMayoExpert. What causes urogenital atrophy? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Bachmann G, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of vaginal atrophy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 10, 2013.
- Bachmann G, et al. Treatment of vaginal atrophy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 10, 2013.
- AskMayoExpert. What are the symptoms of urogenital atrophy? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Pickar JH. Emerging therapies for postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Maturitas. In press. Accessed March 21, 2013.
- AskMayoExpert. What are the treatment options for managing vaginal symptoms of urogenital atrophy in women with a history of breast cancer? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Papadakis MA, et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2013. 52nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed March 19, 2013.
- The 2012 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2012;19:257.
- Menopause and menopause treatments. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov. Accessed March 8, 2013.
- Lentz GM, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/linkTo?type=bookPage&isbn=978-0-323-06986-1&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-06986-1..C2009-0-48752-X--TOP. Accessed March 10, 2013.
- AskMayoExpert. Are any tests available that can confirm or suggest vulvovaginal atrophy? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Leach MJ, et al. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007244.pub2/abstract. Accessed March 11, 2013.
- Casper RF, et al. Menopausal hot flashes. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 11, 2013.
- Summary of Roundtable Meeting on Dietary Supplement-Drug Interactions. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://nccam.nih.gov/news/events/druginteraction?nav=gsa. March 21, 2013.
- Tan O, et al. Management of vulvovaginal atrophy-related sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women: An up-to-date review. Menopause. 2012;19:109.
- Simon JA, et al. One-year long-term safety extension study of ospemifene for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women with a uterus. Menopause. 2013;20:1.