In many developing nations, the public health goals that can help prevent and control typhoid fever — safe drinking water, improved sanitation and adequate medical care — may be difficult to achieve. For that reason, some experts believe that vaccinating high-risk populations is the best way to control typhoid fever.
A vaccine is recommended if you're traveling to areas where the risk of getting typhoid fever is high.
Two vaccines are available.
- One is injected in a single dose at least one week before travel.
- One is given orally in four capsules, with one capsule to be taken every other day.
Neither vaccine is 100 percent effective, and both require repeat immunizations, as vaccine effectiveness diminishes over time.
Because the vaccine won't provide complete protection, follow these guidelines when traveling to high-risk areas:
- Wash your hands. Frequent hand-washing in hot, soapy water is the best way to control infection. Wash before eating or preparing food and after using the toilet. Carry an alcohol-based hand sanitizer for times when water isn't available.
Avoid drinking untreated water. Contaminated drinking water is a particular problem in areas where typhoid fever is endemic. For that reason, drink only bottled water or canned or bottled carbonated beverages, wine and beer. Carbonated bottled water is safer than uncarbonated bottled water is.
Ask for drinks without ice. Use bottled water to brush your teeth, and try not to swallow water in the shower.
- Avoid raw fruits and vegetables. Because raw produce may have been washed in unsafe water, avoid fruits and vegetables that you can't peel, especially lettuce. To be absolutely safe, you may want to avoid raw foods entirely.
- Choose hot foods. Avoid food that's stored or served at room temperature. Steaming hot foods are best. And although there's no guarantee that meals served at the finest restaurants are safe, it's best to avoid food from street vendors — it's more likely to be contaminated.
Prevent infecting others
If you're recovering from typhoid fever, these measures can help keep others safe:
July 11, 2015
- Take your antibiotics. Follow your doctor's instructions for taking your antibiotics, and be sure to finish the entire prescription.
- Wash your hands often. This is the single most important thing you can do to keep from spreading the infection to others. Use hot, soapy water and scrub thoroughly for at least 30 seconds, especially before eating and after using the toilet.
- Avoid handling food. Avoid preparing food for others until your doctor says you're no longer contagious. If you work in the food service industry or a health care facility, you won't be allowed to return to work until tests show that you're no longer shedding typhoid bacteria.
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- Longo DL, et al., eds. Salmonellosis In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2015. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed June 10, 2015.
- Typhoid fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid_fever. Accessed June 10, 2015.
- Hohmann EL. Epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of typhoid fever. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 10, 2015.
- Hohmann EL. Treatment and prevention of typhoid fever. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 10, 2015.
- Anwar E, et al. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001261.pub3/abstract. Accessed June 10, 2015.