Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in industrialized countries. However, it remains a serious health threat in the developing world, especially for children.
Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who's infected. Signs and symptoms usually include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and either constipation or diarrhea.
When treated with antibiotics, most people with typhoid fever feel better within a few days, although a small percentage of them may die of complications.
Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but they're only partially effective. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is common.
Aug. 22, 2012
- Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012. Atlanta, Ga.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2012. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2010/chapter-2/typhoid-paratyphoid-fever.aspx. Accessed April 26, 2012.
- Typhoid fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid_fever/. Accessed April 18, 2012.
- Maurice J. A first step in bringing typhoid fever out of the closet. The Lancet. 2012;379:699.
- Goldman L, et al. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-1604-7..00316-X&isbn=978-1-4377-1604-7&sid=1301718288&uniqId=331385541-5#4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-1604-7..00316-X. Accessed April 26, 2012.
- Bope ET, et al. Conn's Current Therapy. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/linkTo?type=bookHome&eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4557-0738-6..C2009-0-38985-0--TOP&isbn=978-1-4557-0738-6&uniqId=331385541-3. Accessed April 26, 2012.
- Mayer CA, et al. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Australian Family Physician. 2010;39:847.
- Crump JA, et al. Global trends in typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2010;50:241.
- Humphries RL, et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment Emergency Medicine. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=55748503. Accessed April 27, 2012.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=9113180. Accessed April 27, 2012.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.