Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's main source of fuel.
With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. Untreated, type 2 diabetes can be life-threatening.
More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you can manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise don't control your blood sugar, you may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.
Jan. 25, 2013
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed Sept. 23, 2012.
- Diabetes mellitus (DM). The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec12/ch158/ch158b.html#sec12-ch158-ch158b-1105. Accessed Sept. 30, 2012.
- Inzucchi SE, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: A patient-centered approach. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1364.
- Standards of medical care in diabetes — 2013. Diabetes Care. 2013:36:S1.
- Bonoro E, et al. The pros and cons of diagnosing diabetes with A1C. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:S184.
- Your guide to diabetes: Type 1 and type 2. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/type1and2/index.htm. Accessed Sept. 23, 2012.
- Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf08/type2/type2rs.htm. Accessed Sept. 23, 2012.
- Diabetes statistics. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics. Accessed Sept. 23, 2012.
- What people with diabetes need to know about osteoporosis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/Conditions_Behaviors/diabetes.asp. Sept. 23, 2011.
- Mazzola N. Review of current and emerging therapies in type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Managed Care. 2012;18:S17.
- Take charge of your diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/tcyd/vaccin.htm. Accessed Sept. 30, 2012.
- Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic.html. Accessed Sept. 19, 2012.
- Dixon JB, et al. Bariatric surgery: An IDF statement for obese type 2 diabetes. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia. 2011;55:367.
- Before pregnancy. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/pregnant-women/before-pregnancy.html. Accessed Sept. 30, 2012.
- Helzner EP, et al. Contribution of vascular risk factors to the progression in Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology. 2009;66:343.
- Bainbridge KE. Diabetes and hearing impairment in the United States: Audiometric evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2008;149:1.
- Schauer PR, et al. Bariatric surgery vs. intense medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012;366:1567.
- Mingrone G, et al. Bariatric surgery vs. conventional medical therapy for type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012;366:1577.
- A1C. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/a1c/?keymatch=a1c. Accessed Oct. 1, 2012.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.