Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include:
Nov. 06, 2014
An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer in either testicle than are men whose testicles descended normally. The risk remains elevated even if the testicle has been surgically relocated to the scrotum.
Still, the majority of men who develop testicular cancer don't have a history of undescended testicles.
- Abnormal testicle development. Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter's syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer.
- Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk.
- Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 35. However, it can occur at any age.
- Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men.
- Niederhuber JE, et al. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014.
- Testicular cancer. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014.
- Wein AJ, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014.
- Testicular self-examination (TSE). Urology Care Foundation. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=101. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014.
- Ilic D, et al. Screening for testicular cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011;CD007853. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007853.pub2/abstract. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 7, 2014.
- Cheney SM, et al. Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: Technique and initial case series of 18 patients. BJU International. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bju.12804/abstract. Accessed Sept. 16, 2014.
- Boorjian SA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 29, 2014.
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