A sprain occurs when you overextend or tear a ligament while severely stressing a joint. Sprains often occur in the following circumstances:
- Ankle. Walking or exercising on an uneven surface
- Knee. Pivoting during an athletic activity
- Wrist. Landing on an outstretched hand during a fall
- Thumb. Skiing or playing racquet sports, such as tennis
There are two types of strains: acute and chronic. An acute strain occurs when a muscle becomes strained or pulled — or may even tear — when it stretches unusually far or abruptly. Acute strains often occur in the following ways:
- Slipping on ice
- Running, jumping or throwing
- Lifting a heavy object or lifting in an awkward position
A chronic strain results from prolonged, repetitive movement of a muscle. This may occur on the job or during sports, such as:
Oct. 25, 2011
- Sprains and strains. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sprains_Strains/default.asp. Accessed Aug. 17, 2011.
- Geiderman JM. General principles of orthopedic injuries. In: Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05472-0..X0001-1--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05472-0&uniqId=230100505-57. Accessed Aug. 17, 2011.
- Sprains and strains: What's the difference? American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00111. Accessed Aug. 17, 2011.
- El Abd O. Low back strain or sprain. In: Frontera WR, et al. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1678/0.html. Accessed Aug. 17, 2011.