Exactly what causes premenstrual syndrome is unknown, but several factors may contribute to the condition:
Dec. 16, 2014
- Cyclic changes in hormones. Signs and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome change with hormonal fluctuations and disappear with pregnancy and menopause.
- Chemical changes in the brain. Fluctuations of serotonin, a brain chemical (neurotransmitter) that is thought to play a crucial role in mood states, could trigger PMS symptoms. Insufficient amounts of serotonin may contribute to premenstrual depression, as well as to fatigue, food cravings and sleep problems.
- Depression. Some women with severe premenstrual syndrome have undiagnosed depression, though depression alone does not cause all of the symptoms.
- Frequently asked questions. Gynecologic problems FAQ057. Premenstrual syndrome. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Premenstrual-Syndrome-PMS. Accessed Nov. 2, 2014.
- Yonkers KA, et al. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 2, 2014.
- Bope ET, et al. Conn's Current Therapy. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 2, 2014.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 2, 2014.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 2, 2014.
- Marjoribanks J, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001396.pub3/abstract. Accessed Nov. 2, 2014.
- Natural medicines in the clinical management of premenstrual syndrome. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed Nov. 2, 2014.
- Khayat S. Effect of treatment with ginger on the severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms. ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2014;792708:1.
- Jang SH, et al. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Systematic review. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;14:1.
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