Risk factors for polymyalgia rheumatica include:
Jul. 20, 2012
- Age. Polymyalgia rheumatica affects older adults almost exclusively. The average age at onset of the disease is 70.
- Sex. Women are about two times more likely to develop the disorder.
- Ethnicity. People of Northern European origin are more likely to have polymyalgia rheumatica than are people of other ethnicities. People living in Middle Eastern and Asian countries have the lowest rates of the disease.
- Hunder GG. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed May 9, 2012.
- Salvarani C, et al. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. The Lancet. 2008;372:234.
- Gonzalez-Gay MA, et al. Medical management of polymyalgia rheumatica. Expert Opinion in Pharmacotherapy. 2010;11:1077.
- Hunder GG. Treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed May 9, 2012.
- Hernandez-Rodriguez J, et al. Treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2009;169:1839.
- Unwin B, et al. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. American Family Physician. 2006;74:1547.
- Glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. American College of Rheumatology. http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/gi-osteoporosis.asp. Accessed May 9, 2012.
- Aikawa NE, et al. Anti-TNF therapy for polymyalgia rheumatica: Report of 99 cases and review of the literature. Clinical Rheumatology. 2012;31:575.
- Chang-Miller A (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 15, 2012.
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