Doctors often recognize polio by symptoms, such as neck and back stiffness, abnormal reflexes, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. To confirm the diagnosis, a sample of throat secretions, stool or cerebrospinal fluid — a colorless fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord — is checked for the presence of poliovirus.
March 11, 2014
- Jubelt B. Polio and infectious diseases of the anterior horn. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Maurice J. Ending polio — If at first you don't succeed … . The Lancet. 2013;381:1261.
- Brunette GW, et. al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2014: The Yellow Book. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/poliomyelitis. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2014: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Kliegman RM, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Lexell J, et al. Life satisfaction and self-reported impairments in persons with late effects of polio. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2012;55:577.
- Simionescu L, et al. Post-polio syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 4, 2013.
- Polio and prevention. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative. http://www.polioeradication.org/Polioandprevention.aspx. Accessed Nov. 4, 2013.
- Polio. National Network for Immunization Information. http://www.immunizationinfo.org/vaccines/polio. Accessed Nov. 4, 2013.
- Pediarix vaccine: Questions and answers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/combo-vaccines/pediarix/faqs-hcp-pediarix.htm. Accessed Nov. 4, 2013.
- Steckelberg JM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 5, 2013.