Symptoms of panic disorder often start in the late teens or early adulthood and affect more women than men.
Factors that may increase the risk of developing panic attacks or panic disorder include:
May 19, 2015
- Family history of panic attacks or panic disorder
- Major life stress, such as the death or serious illness of a loved one
- A traumatic event, such as sexual assault or a serious accident
- Major changes in your life, such as a divorce or the addition of a baby
- Smoking or excessive caffeine intake
- History of childhood physical or sexual abuse
- Panic disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed April 20, 2015.
- Ciechanowski P. Panic disorder: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 21, 2015.
- Panic disorder: When fear overwhelms. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/panic-disorder-when-fear-overwhelms/index.shtml. Accessed April 20, 2015.
- Answers to your questions about panic disorder. American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/topics/anxiety/panic-disorder.aspx. Accessed April 20, 2015.
- Craske M. Psychotherapy for panic disorder. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 21, 2015.
- Inositol. National Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://naturaldatabase.com. Accessed April 20, 2015.
- Gaudlitz K, et al. Aerobic exercise training facilitates the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety. 2015;32:221.
- Vorkapic CF, et al. Reducing the symptomatology of panic disorder: The effects of a yoga program alone and in combination with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2014;5:1.
- Roy-Byrne PP. Pharmacotherapy for panic disorder. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 21, 2015.
- Clonazepam, alprazolam, venlafaxine hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride, paroxetine mesylate, paroxetine hydrochloride, sertraline hydrochloride. Micromedex 2.0 Healthcare Series. http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed April 22, 2015.
- Sawchuk CA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 8, 2015.
- Hall-Flavin DK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 11, 2015.
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