Your body uses calcium and phosphate to build strong bones. Osteomalacia may occur if you don't get enough of these minerals in your diet or if your body doesn't absorb them properly. These problems may be caused by:
Apr. 18, 2014
- Vitamin D deficiency. Sunlight produces vitamin D in your skin. Your body needs vitamin D to process calcium. Osteomalacia can develop in people who spend little time in sunlight, wear very strong sunscreen or remain covered while outside.
- People who live in areas where sunlight hours are short or eat a diet low in vitamin D can develop osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of osteomalacia worldwide.
- Certain surgeries. Normally, the stomach breaks down food to release vitamin D and other minerals that are absorbed in the intestine. This process is disrupted if you have surgery to remove part or all of your stomach (gastrectomy), and may result in osteomalacia. Surgery to remove or bypass your small intestine also can lead to osteomalacia.
- Celiac disease. In this autoimmune disorder, the lining of your small intestine is damaged by consuming foods containing gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. A damaged intestinal lining doesn't absorb nutrients, such as vitamin D, as well as a healthy one does.
- Kidney or liver disorders. Problems with your kidneys or liver can interfere with your ability to process vitamin D.
- Drugs. Some drugs used to treat seizures, including phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek) and phenobarbital, can cause osteomalacia.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 25, 2013.
- Menkes CJ. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of osteomalacia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 25, 2013.
- Bhan A, et al. Osteomalacia as a result of vitamin D deficiency. Rheumatology Disease Clinics of North America. 2012;38:81.
- Menkes CJ. Epidemiology and etiology of osteomalacia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 25, 2013.
- Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. Chevy Chase, Md.: The Endocrine Society. http://www.endocrine.org/education-and-practice-management/clinical-practice-guidelines. Accessed Nov. 25, 2013.
- Position statement on vitamin D. American Academy of Dermatology. http://www.aad.org/stories-and-news/news-releases/academy-issues-updated-position-statement-on-vitamin-d. Accessed Nov. 25, 2013.
- Chang-Miller A (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 20, 2014.