Your body uses calcium and phosphate to build strong bones. Osteomalacia may occur if you don't get enough of these minerals in your diet or if your body doesn't absorb them properly. These problems may be caused by:
May. 03, 2011
- Vitamin D deficiency. Sunlight produces vitamin D in your skin. Your body needs vitamin D to process calcium. Osteomalacia can develop in people who spend little time in sunlight, wear very strong sunscreen, remain covered while outside, or live in areas where sunlight hours are short or the air is smoggy.
- Certain surgeries. Removing part or all of your stomach (gastrectomy) can cause osteomalacia because your stomach breaks down foods to release vitamin D and other minerals, which are absorbed in your intestines. Surgery to remove or bypass your small intestine also can lead to osteomalacia.
- Celiac disease. In this autoimmune disorder, the lining of your small intestine is damaged by consuming foods containing gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. A damaged intestinal lining doesn't absorb nutrients, such as vitamin D, as well as a healthy one does.
- Kidney or liver disorders. Problems with your kidneys or liver can interfere with your ability to process vitamin D.
- Drugs. Some drugs used to treat seizures, including phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek) and phenobarbital, can cause osteomalacia.
- Bhan A, et al. Osteomalacia as a result of vitamin D deficiency. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2010;39:321.
- Rickets. In: Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2011: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2011.http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05610-6..C2009-0-38600-6--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05610-6&about=true&uniqId=230100505-53. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Rickets and osteomalacia. In: Kronenberg HM, et al. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/191205553-3/0/1555/0.html#. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Menkes CJ. Diagnosis and treatment of osteomalacia. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Rickets and hypervitaminosis D. In: Kliegman RM. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1608/0.html. NGC. http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=13540. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Binkley N, et al. Low vitamin D status: Definition, prevalence, consequences, and correction. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2010;39:287.
- Menkes CJ. Clinical manifestations and etiology of osteomalacia. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Chang-Miller A (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 4, 2011.