Noroviruses are highly contagious and are shed in the feces of infected humans and animals. Methods of transmission include:
- Eating contaminated food
- Drinking contaminated water
- Touching your hand to your mouth after your hand has been in contact with a contaminated surface or object
- Being in close contact with a person who has a norovirus infection
Noroviruses are difficult to wipe out because they can withstand hot and cold temperatures as well as most disinfectants.
Apr. 02, 2014
- Treanor JJ. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of norovirus and related viruses. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 8, 2013.
- Blacklow MR. Epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 8, 2013.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/191371208-2/0/1492/0.html#. Accessed Nov. 8, 2013.
- Payne DC, et al. Norovirus and medically attended gastroenteritis in U.S. children. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;368:1121.
- AskMayoExpert. What tests are needed to confirm the diagnosis of norovirus infection? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
- Alexandraki I, et al. Management of acute viral gastroenteritis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 8, 2013.
- Bok K, et al. Norovirus gastroenteritis in immunocompromised patients. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2012;367:2126.
- Norovirus: Technical fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/index.html. Accessed Nov. 8, 2013.
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