Often, the exact cause of an individual case of myocarditis isn't identified. However, there are numerous potential causes of myocarditis, such as:
- Viruses. Viruses commonly associated with myocarditis include coxsackievirus B, which can cause symptoms similar to a mild case of flu; the viruses that cause the common cold (adenovirus); and parvovirus B19, which causes a rash called fifth disease. Gastrointestinal infections (echoviruses), mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus) and German measles (rubella) also are causes of myocarditis. Myocarditis is also common in people with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
- Bacteria. Numerous bacteria may cause myocarditis, including staphylococcus, streptococcus, the bacteria that causes diphtheria and the tick-borne bacterium responsible for Lyme disease.
- Parasites. Among these are such parasites as Trypanosoma cruzi and toxoplasma, including some that are transmitted by insects and can cause a condition called Chagas' disease. This disease is more prevalent in Central and South America than in the United States, but it can occur in travelers and in immigrants from that part of the world.
- Fungi. Some yeast infections (such as candida), molds (such as aspergillus) and other fungi (such as histoplasma, often found in bird droppings) can sometimes cause myocarditis.
Myocarditis also sometimes occurs if you're exposed to:
May. 02, 2012
- Medications or illegal drugs that may cause an allergic or toxic reaction. These include antibiotics, such as penicillin and sulfonamide drugs, some anti-seizure medications as well as some illegal substances, such as cocaine.
- Other diseases. These include lupus, connective tissue disorders and rare inflammatory conditions, such as Wegener's granulomatosis.
- Kindermann I, et al. Update on myocarditis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012;59:779.
- Cooper LT. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of myocarditis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 14, 2012.
- Schultz JC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of viral myocarditis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2009;84:1001.
- Schultheiss HP, et al. The management of myocarditis. European Heart Journal. 2011;32:2616.
- Allan CK, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of myocarditis in children. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 14, 2012.
- Cooper LT. Etiology and pathogenesis of myocarditis. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 14, 2012.