Your doctor will ask about your medical history and your family history of heart disease. Your doctor will also perform a physical exam that includes listening to your heart with a stethoscope. Mitral valve regurgitation usually produces a heart murmur, the sound of blood leaking backward through the mitral valve.
Your doctor will then decide which tests are needed to make a diagnosis. For testing, you may be referred to a cardiologist.
Common tests to diagnose mitral valve regurgitation include:
An echocardiogram is conducted.
Echocardiogram. This is the test most commonly used to diagnose mitral valve regurgitation. In this test, sound waves directed at your heart from a wandlike device (transducer) held on your chest produce video images of your heart in motion. This test assesses the structure of your heart, the mitral valve and the blood flow through your heart. An echocardiogram helps your doctor get a close look at the mitral valve and how well it's working. Doctors also may use a 3-D echocardiogram.
Doctors may conduct another type of echocardiogram called a transesophageal echocardiogram. In this test, a small transducer attached to the end of a tube is inserted down your esophagus, which allows a closer look at the mitral valve than a regular echocardiogram does. Doctors may also use a 3-D echocardiogram.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG). Wires (electrodes) attached to adhesive pads on your skin measure electrical impulses from your heart. An ECG can detect enlarged chambers of your heart, heart disease and abnormal heart rhythms.
- Chest X-ray. This enables your doctor to determine whether the left atrium or the left ventricle is enlarged — possible indicators of mitral valve regurgitation — and the condition of your lungs.
- Cardiac MRI. A cardiac MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of your heart. This test may be used to determine the severity of your condition and assess the size and function of your lower left heart chamber (left ventricle).
- Exercise tests or stress tests. Different exercise tests help measure your activity tolerance and monitor your heart's response to physical exertion. If you are unable to exercise, medications to mimic the effect of exercise on your heart may be used.
- Cardiac catheterization. This test isn't often used to diagnose mitral valve regurgitation. This invasive technique involves threading a thin tube (catheter) through a blood vessel in your arm or groin to an artery in your heart and injecting dye through the catheter to make the artery visible on an X-ray. This provides a detailed picture of your heart arteries and how your heart functions. It can also measure the pressure inside the heart chambers.
- CT angiogram. A CT angiogram may be performed of the chest, abdomen and pelvis to determine whether you're a candidate for robotic mitral valve repair.
March 22, 2016
- Heart valve disease. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/hvd/hvd_all.html. Accessed Dec. 9, 2014.
- Roles of your four heart valves. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/HeartValveProblemsandDisease/Roles-of-Your-Four-Heart-Valves_UCM_450344_Article.jsp. Accessed Dec. 9, 2014.
- Otto CM. Etiology, clinical features, and evaluation of chronic mitral regurgitation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 8, 2014.
- What is pulmonary hypertension? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pah/. Accessed Dec. 9, 2014.
- Gaasch WH. Overview of the management of chronic mitral regurgitation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 8, 2014.
- Schiller NB, et al. Echocardiographic evaluation of the mitral valve. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 8, 2014.
- Maganti K, et al. Valvular heart disease: Diagnosis and management. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2010;85:483.
- Gaasch WH. Surgical procedures in severe chronic mitral valve regurgitation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 9, 2014.
- Nishimura RA, et al. 2014 ACC/AHA valve guidelines: Earlier intervention for chronic mitral regurgitation. Heart. 2014;100:905.
- Aldea GS. Minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve surgery. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 8, 2014.
- Otto CM. Acute mitral regurgitation in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 6, 2014.
- Gaasch WH, et al. Valvular heart disease induced by drugs. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 9, 2014.
- Nishimura RA, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: Executive summary. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2014;63:2438.
- What is atrial fibrillation? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/af. Accessed Dec. 9, 2014.
- Rehfeldt KH, et al. Robot-assisted mitral valve repair. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 2011;25:721.
- Suri RM, et al. Minimally invasive heart surgery: How and why in 2012. Current Cardiology Reports. 2012;14:171.
- Bhamra-Ariza P, et al. The MitraClip experience and future percutaneous mitral valve therapies. Heart, Lung & Circulation. 2014;23:1009.
- Cullen MW, et al. Transvenous, antegrade Melody valve-in-valve implantation for bioprosthetic mitral and tricuspid valve dysfunction: A case series in children and adults. JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions. 2013;6:598.
- What causes cardiomyopathy? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cm/causes. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- What cause an arrhythmia? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/arr/causes. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Rihal CS, et al. Principles of percutaneous paravalvular leak closure. JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions. 2012;5:121.
- Golden AK. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 11, 2014.
- Suri RM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 30, 2014.
- Nkomo VT (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 2, 2015.
- Suri RM, et al. Survival advantage and improved durability of mitral repair for leaflet prolapse subsets in the current era. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2006;82:819.
- Suri RM, et al. Robotic mitral valve repair for all categories of leaflet prolapse: Improving patient appeal and advancing standard of care. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2011;86:838.
- Suri RM, et al. Improving affordability through innovation in the surgical treatment of mitral valve disease. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2013:88:1075.
- U.S. News Best Hospitals 2014-15. U.S. News & World Report. http://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals/rankings. Accessed Dec. 29, 2014.
- Suri RM, et al. Association between early surgical intervention vs watchful waiting and outcomes for mitral regurgitation due to flail mitral valve leaflets. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2013;310:609.
- Suri RM, et al. Robotic mitral valve repair for all prolapse subsets using techniques identical to open valvuloplasty: Establishing the benchmark against which percutaneous interventions should be judged. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2011;142:970.
- Suri RM, et al. Recurrent mitral regurgitation after repair: Should the mitral valve be re-repaired? The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2006;132:1390.
- Constans DM. Echo Report Yearly Volumes. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Accessed Jan. 12, 2015.
- Algarni KD, et al. Robotic-assisted mitral valve repair: Surgical technique. Multimedia Manual of Cardiothoracic Surgery. 2014;2014:e1. http://mmcts.oxfordjournals.org/content/2014/mmu022.full?sid=f176f3ea-c51d-42cc-871f-9c7d8b10c943. Accessed Jan. 9, 2015.
- Suri RM, et al. Quality of life after early mitral valve repair using conventional and robotic approaches. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2012;93:761.
- Sorajja R, et al. The learning curve in percutaneous repair of paravalvuloar prosthetic regurgitation: An analysis of 200 cases. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2014;7:521.
- Miller HL. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Accessed Dec. 29, 2014.
- Severson RM. Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database. Accessed Jan. 15, 2015.
Mitral valve regurgitation