Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may be aware that your memory or mental function has "slipped." Your family and close friends also may notice a change. But generally these changes aren't severe enough to interfere with your day-to-day life and usual activities.

Mild cognitive impairment may increase your risk of later progressing to dementia, caused by Alzheimer's disease or other neurological conditions. But some people with mild cognitive impairment never get worse, and a few eventually get better.

Your brain, like the rest of your body, changes as you grow older. Many people notice gradually increasing forgetfulness as they age. It may take longer to think of a word or to recall a person's name.

But consistent or increasing concern about your mental performance may suggest mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cognitive issues may go beyond what's expected and indicate possible MCI if you experience any or all of the following:

  • You forget things more often.
  • You forget important events such as appointments or social engagements.
  • You lose your train of thought or the thread of conversations, books or movies.
  • You feel increasingly overwhelmed by making decisions, planning steps to accomplish a task or interpreting instructions.
  • You start to have trouble finding your way around familiar environments.
  • You become more impulsive or show increasingly poor judgment.
  • Your family and friends notice any of these changes.

If you have MCI, you may also experience:

  • Depression
  • Irritability and aggression
  • Anxiety
  • Apathy

There's no single cause of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), just as there's no single outcome for the disorder. Symptoms of MCI may remain stable for years, progress to Alzheimer's disease or another type of dementia, or improve over time.

Current evidence indicates that MCI often, but not always, arises from a lesser degree of the same types of brain changes seen in Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia. Some of these changes have been identified in autopsy studies of people with MCI. These changes include:

  • Abnormal clumps of beta-amyloid protein (plaques) and microscopic protein clumps characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (tangles)
  • Lewy bodies, which are microscopic clumps of another protein associated with Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and some cases of Alzheimer's disease
  • Small strokes or reduced blood flow through brain blood vessels

Brain-imaging studies show that the following changes may be associated with MCI:

  • Shrinkage of the hippocampus, a brain region important for memory
  • Plaques throughout the brain
  • Enlargement of the brain's fluid-filled spaces (ventricles)
  • Reduced use of glucose, the sugar that's the primary source of energy for cells, in key brain regions

The strongest risk factors for MCI are:

  • Increasing age
  • Having a specific form of a gene known as APOE-e4, also linked to Alzheimer's disease — though having the gene doesn't guarantee that you'll experience cognitive decline

Other medical conditions and lifestyle factors have been linked to an increased risk of cognitive change, but the evidence for these risk factors is less clear. These risk factors include:

  • Diabetes
  • Current smoking
  • Depression
  • High blood pressure
  • Elevated cholesterol
  • Lack of physical exercise
  • Infrequent participation in mentally or socially stimulating activities

People with MCI have a significantly increased risk — but not a certainty — of developing Alzheimer's disease or another type of dementia. Overall, about 1 to 2 percent of older adults develop dementia every year. Among older adults with MCI, studies suggest that 6 to 15 percent develop dementia every year.

You're likely to start by seeing your family doctor. If your doctor suspects you have cognitive changes, you may be referred to a specialist with expertise in evaluating mental function. The specialist may be a neurologist, psychiatrist or neuropsychologist.

Because appointments can be brief and there's often a lot to talk about, it's good to be well prepared. Here are some suggestions to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. When you make your appointment, ask if you need to fast for blood work or if you need to do anything else to prepare for diagnostic tests.
  • Write down all of your symptoms. Your doctor will want to know details about what's causing your concern about your memory or mental function. Make notes about some of the most important examples of forgetfulness or other lapses you want to mention. Try to remember when you first started to suspect that something might be wrong. If you think your difficulties are getting worse, be ready to explain why.
  • Take along a family member or friend, if possible. Corroboration from a relative or trusted friend can play a key role in confirming that your memory difficulties are apparent to others. Having someone along can also help you retain all the information provided during your appointment.
  • Make a list of your other medical conditions. Your doctor will want to know if you're currently being treated for diabetes, heart disease, past strokes or any other conditions.
  • Make a list of all your medications. Your doctor will want to know about any over-the-counter drugs, vitamins or supplements you're taking.

Questions to ask your doctor

Because time with your doctor is limited, writing down a list of questions will help you make the most of your appointment. List your questions from most pressing to least important in case time runs out. For cognitive changes, some questions to ask your doctor include:

  • Do I have a memory problem?
  • What's causing my difficulties?
  • What tests do I need?
  • Do I need to see a specialist? What will that cost? Will my insurance cover it?
  • Are treatments available?
  • Are there any clinical trials of experimental treatments I should consider?
  • Should I expect any long-term complications?
  • Will my new symptoms affect how I manage my other health conditions?
  • Do I need to follow any restrictions?
  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're giving me?
  • Do you have any brochures or other printed material I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions you've prepared ahead of time, don't hesitate to ask your doctor to clarify anything you don't understand.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is also likely to have questions for you. Being ready to respond may free up time to focus on any points you want to talk about in-depth. Your doctor may ask:

  • What kinds of memory difficulties are you having? When did they first appear?
  • Are they steadily getting worse, or are they sometimes better and sometimes worse?
  • Do you feel any sadder or more anxious than usual?
  • Have you noticed any changes in the way you react to people or events?
  • Have you noticed any changes in how well or how long you sleep? Do you snore?
  • Do you have more energy than usual, less than usual or about the same?
  • What medications are you taking? Are you taking any vitamins or supplements?
  • Do you drink alcohol? How much?
  • What other medical conditions are you being treated for?
  • Have you noticed any trembling or trouble walking?
  • Are you having any trouble remembering your medical appointments or when to take your medication?
  • Have you had your hearing and vision tested recently?
  • Did anyone else in your family ever have memory trouble? Was anyone ever diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or dementia?

There is no specific test to confirm a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Your doctor will decide whether MCI is the most likely cause of your symptoms based on the information you provide and results of various tests that can help clarify the diagnosis.

Many doctors diagnose MCI based on the following criteria developed by a panel of international experts:

  • You have problems with memory or another mental function. You may have problems with your memory, planning, following instructions or making decisions. Your own impressions should be corroborated by someone close to you.
  • You've declined over time. A careful medical history reveals that your ability has declined from a higher level. This change ideally is confirmed by a family member or a close friend.
  • Your overall mental function and daily activities aren't affected. Your medical history shows that your overall abilities and daily activities generally aren't impaired, although specific symptoms may cause worry and inconvenience.
  • Mental status testing shows a mild level of impairment for your age and education level. Doctors often assess mental performance with a brief test such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). More detailed neuropsychological testing may shed additional light on the degree of memory impairment, which types of memory are most affected and whether other mental skills also are impaired.
  • Your diagnosis isn't dementia. The problems that you describe and that your doctor documents through corroborating reports, your medical history or mental status testing aren't severe enough to be diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease or another type of dementia.

Neurological exam

As part of your physical exam, your doctor may perform some basic tests that indicate how well your brain and nervous system are working. These tests can help detect neurological signs of Parkinson's disease, strokes, tumors or other medical conditions that can impair your memory as well as your physical function. The neurological exam may test:

  • Reflexes
  • Eye movements
  • Walking and balance

Lab tests

Blood tests can help rule out physical problems that can affect memory, such as a vitamin B-12 deficiency or an underactive thyroid gland.

Brain imaging

Your doctor may order an MRI or CT scan to check for evidence of a brain tumor, stroke or bleeding.

Mental status testing

Short forms of mental status testing can be done in about 10 minutes. In testing, doctors ask people to conduct several specific tasks and answer several questions, such as naming today's date or following a written instruction.

Longer forms of neuropsychological testing can provide additional details about your mental function compared with others' of a similar age and education level. These tests may also help identify patterns of change that offer clues about the underlying cause of your symptoms.

Currently, no mild cognitive impairment (MCI) drugs or other treatments are specifically approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, MCI is an active area of research. Clinical studies are under way to shed more light on the disorder and find treatments that may improve symptoms or prevent or delay progression to dementia.

Alzheimer's drugs

Doctors sometimes prescribe cholinesterase inhibitors, a type of drug approved for Alzheimer's disease, for people with MCI whose main symptom is memory loss. However, cholinesterase inhibitors aren't recommended for routine treatment of MCI because they don't appear to provide lasting benefit.

Treating other conditions that can affect mental function

Other common conditions besides MCI can make you feel forgetful or less mentally sharp than usual. Treating these conditions can help improve your memory and overall mental function. Conditions that can affect memory include:

  • High blood pressure. People with MCI tend to be more likely to have problems with the blood vessels inside their brains. High blood pressure can worsen these problems and cause memory difficulties. Your doctor will monitor your blood pressure and recommend steps to lower it if it's too high.
  • Depression. When you're depressed, you often feel forgetful and mentally "foggy." Depression is common in people with MCI. Treating depression may help improve memory, while making it easier to cope with the changes in your life.
  • Sleep apnea. In this condition, your breathing repeatedly stops and starts while you're asleep, making it difficult to get a good night's rest. Sleep apnea can make you feel excessively tired during the day, forgetful and unable to concentrate. Treatment can improve these symptoms and restore alertness.

Study results have been mixed about whether diet, exercise or other healthy lifestyle choices can prevent or reverse cognitive decline. Regardless, these healthy choices promote good overall health and may play a role in good cognitive health.

  • Regular physical exercise has known benefits for heart health and may also help prevent or slow cognitive decline.
  • A diet low in fat and rich in fruits and vegetables is another heart-healthy choice that also may help protect cognitive health.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids also are good for the heart. Most research showing a possible benefit for cognitive health uses fish consumption as a yardstick for the amount of omega-3 fatty acids eaten.
  • Intellectual stimulation may prevent cognitive decline. Studies have shown computer use, playing games, reading books and other intellectual activities may help preserve function and prevent cognitive decline.
  • Social engagement may make life more satisfying, and help preserve mental function and slow mental decline.
  • Memory training and other thinking (cognitive) training may help improve your function.

Some supplements — including vitamin E, ginkgo and others — have been purported to help prevent or delay the progression of mild cognitive impairment. However, no supplement has shown any benefit in a clinical trial.

  • Experience. Mayo Clinic doctors trained in brain and nervous system conditions (neurologists) have experience evaluating and treating people with mild cognitive impairment and other neurological conditions.
  • Team approach. Mayo Clinic neurologists, mental health specialists (psychologists and psychiatrists), imaging specialists (radiologists), sleep medicine specialists and others work together to diagnose and treat people with mild cognitive impairment.
  • Individualized treatment. Your doctor will work with you to develop a treatment plan appropriate for you and your family's needs.
  • Research. Mayo Clinic doctors conduct extensive research in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, and conduct clinical trials.
  • Family support and education. Doctors and staff will educate you and your family about your condition.

Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., is ranked among the Best Hospitals for neurology and neurosurgery by U.S. News & World Report. Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Ariz., and Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., are ranked high performing for neurology and neurosurgery by U.S. News & World Report. Mayo Clinic also ranks among the Best Children's Hospitals for neurology and neurosurgery.

At Mayo Clinic, we assemble a team of specialists who take the time to listen and thoroughly understand your health issues and concerns. We tailor the care you receive to your personal health care needs. You can trust our specialists to collaborate and offer you the best possible outcomes, safety and service.

Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit medical institution that reinvests all earnings into improving medical practice, research and education. We're constantly involved in innovation and medical research, finding solutions to improve your care and quality of life. Your doctor or someone on your medical team is likely involved in research related to your condition.

Our patients tell us that the quality of their interactions, our attention to detail and the efficiency of their visits mean health care — and trusted answers — like they've never experienced.

Why Choose Mayo Clinic

What Sets Mayo Clinic Apart

Mayo Clinic works with hundreds of insurance companies and is an in-network provider for millions of people. In most cases, Mayo Clinic doesn't require a physician referral. Some insurers require referrals or may have additional requirements for certain medical care. All appointments are prioritized on the basis of medical need.

Doctors trained in neurology, psychiatry and psychology, and other areas evaluate and treat people with mild cognitive impairment and related conditions at Mayo Clinic in Arizona,

Mayo Clinic in Arizona is part of the Arizona Alzheimer's Research Consortium, a statewide research collaboration that studies ways to detect, treat and prevent Alzheimer's disease.

For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 800-446-2279 (toll-free) 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mountain Standard Time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.

Doctors trained in neurology, psychiatry and psychology, and other areas evaluate and treat people with mild cognitive impairment and related conditions at Mayo Clinic in Florida.

Staff in the Memory Disorders Clinic conducts research and cares for people with mild cognitive impairment and other memory disorders. The neurosciences research program actively conducts research in Alzheimer's disease and related conditions.

For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 904-953-0853 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.

Doctors trained in neurology, psychiatry and psychology, and other areas evaluate and treat people with mild cognitive impairment and related conditions at Mayo Clinic in Minnesota. Staff in the memory training program helps people with mild cognitive impairment to learn habits to compensate for a decline in mental functioning.

For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 507-538-3270 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. Central time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.

See information on patient services at the three Mayo Clinic locations, including transportation options and lodging.

Mayo Clinic researchers at Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Florida and Minnesota study mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions that affect your memory and thinking skills. Researchers study risk factors, predictors, prevention, diagnostic techniques and potential treatments for mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions. Staff in the Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging also conducts research in many age-related conditions.

The Mayo Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Mayo Clinic in Minnesota and Mayo Clinic in Florida is 1 of 34 Alzheimer's Disease Centers in the United States designated and funded by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health. Mayo Clinic in Arizona is part of the Arizona Alzheimer's Consortium, a statewide research collaboration. You may have the opportunity to participate in clinical trials at Mayo Clinic. Read more about Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's disease research.

Mayo publications

See a list of publications by Mayo Clinic doctors on mild cognitive impairment on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine.

Read an article about neuroimaging for dementia.

Aug. 21, 2012