Risk factors for hypogonadism include:
- Kallmann syndrome
- Undescended testicles as an infant
- Mumps infection affecting your testicles
- Injury to your testicles
- Testicular or pituitary tumors
- Klinefelter syndrome
- Previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy
- Untreated sleep apnea
Hypogonadism can be inherited. If any of these risk factors are in your family health history, tell your doctor.
July 10, 2014
- Snyder PJ. Clinical features and diagnosis of male hypogonadism. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 29, 2013.
- Anawalt BD, et al. Performance of total testosterone measurement to predict free testosterone for the biochemical evaluation of male hypogonadism. The Journal of Urology. 2012;187:1369.
- Papadakis MA, et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2013. 52nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed July 29, 2013.
- Snyder PJ. Causes of primary of hypogonadism in males. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 29, 2013.
- Snyder PJ. Causes of secondary hypogonadism in males. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 29, 2013.
- Grinspon RP, et al. New perspectives in the diagnosis of pediatric male hypogonadism: The importance of AMH as a sertoli cell marker. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia. 2011;55:512.
- Pantalone KM, et al. Male hypogonadism: More than just a low testosterone. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2012;79:717.
- Snyder PJ. Testosterone treatment of male hypogonadism. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 29, 2013.
- Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Institute of Medicine. http://www.iom.edu/vitamind. Accessed July 31, 2013.
- Testosterone therapy in adult men with androgen deficiency syndromes. Chevy Chase, Md.: The Endocrine Society. http://www.endo-society.org/guidelines/Current-Clinical-Practice-Guidelines.cfm. Accessed July 31, 2013.
- Amore M, et al. Partial androgen deficiency, depression and testosterone treatment in aging men. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2009;21:1.
- Snyder PJ. Overview of testosterone deficiency in elderly men. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 17, 2014.
- Finkle WD, et al. Increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction following testosterone therapy prescription in men. PLOS One. 2014;9:1.
- Aveed (prescribing information). Malvern, Pa.; Endo Pharmaceuticals Solutions Inc.; 2014. http://www.endo.com/File%20Library/Products/Prescribing%20Information/AVEED_prescribing_information.html. Accessed March 31, 2014.
- FDA adding general warning to testosterone products about potential for venous blood clots. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm401746.htm. Accessed July 2, 2014.