With some trial and error, you may be able to predict your body's response to different foods containing lactose and figure out how much you can eat or drink without discomfort. Few people have such severe lactose intolerance that they have to cut out all milk products and be wary of nondairy foods or medications that contain lactose.
Maintain good nutrition
Reducing the dairy products doesn't mean you can't get enough calcium. Calcium is found in many other foods, such as:
- Calcium-fortified products, such as breads and juices
- Canned salmon
- Milk substitutes, such as soy milk and rice milk
- Pinto beans
Also make sure you get enough vitamin D, which is typically supplied in fortified milk. Eggs, liver and yogurt also contain vitamin D, and your body makes vitamin D when you spend time in the sun. Even without restricting dairy foods, though, many adults don't get enough vitamin D. Talk to your doctor about taking vitamin D and calcium supplements to be sure.
Limit dairy products
Most people with lactose intolerance can enjoy some milk products without symptoms. You may be able to tolerate low-fat milk products, such as skim milk, better than whole-milk products. It also may be possible to increase your tolerance to dairy products by gradually introducing them into your diet.
Ways to change your diet to minimize symptoms of lactose intolerance include:
April 14, 2015
- Choosing smaller servings of dairy. Sip small servings of milk — up to 4 ounces (118 milliliters) at a time. The smaller the serving, the less likely it is to cause gastrointestinal problems.
- Saving milk for mealtimes. Drink milk with other foods. This slows the digestive process and may lessen symptoms of lactose intolerance.
- Experimenting with an assortment of dairy products. Not all dairy products have the same amount of lactose. For example, hard cheeses, such as Swiss or cheddar, have small amounts of lactose and generally cause no symptoms. You may be able to tolerate cultured milk products, such as yogurt, because the bacteria used in the culturing process naturally produce the enzyme that breaks down lactose.
- Buying lactose-reduced or lactose-free products. You can find these products at most supermarkets in the refrigerated dairy section.
- Using lactase enzyme tablets or drops. Over-the-counter tablets or drops containing the lactase enzyme (Dairy Ease, Lactaid, others) may help you digest dairy products. You can take tablets just before a meal or snack. Or the drops can be added to a carton of milk. Not everyone with lactose intolerance is helped by these products.
- Feldman M, et al. Maldigestion and malabsorption. In: Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 26, 2015.
- Leavitt M, et al. Clinical implications of lactose malabsorption versus lactose intolerance. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2013;47:471.
- Montgomery RK, et al. Lactose intolerance. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 25, 2015.
- Lactose intolerance. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/lactoseintolerance/. Accessed March 26, 2015.
- Heaney, RP. Dairy intake, dietary adequacy, and lactose intolerance. Advances in Nutrition. 2013;4:151.