Hypoparathyroidism occurs when your parathyroid glands don't secrete enough parathyroid hormone. You have four parathyroid glands — each normally about the size of a grain of rice — situated in your neck, adjacent to your thyroid gland.
The low production of PTH leads to abnormally low calcium levels (hypocalcemia) in your blood and bones and to increased levels of serum phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia).
Factors that can cause hypoparathyroidism include:
May 09, 2014
- Acquired hypoparathyroidism. This most common cause of hypoparathyroidism develops after accidental damage to or removal of the parathyroid glands during surgery. This surgery may be a treatment for diseases of the nearby thyroid gland, or for throat cancer or neck cancer. Today, surgeons are more careful to avoid injuring the parathyroid glands during surgery.
- Autoimmune disease. In this condition, your immune system creates antibodies against the parathyroid tissues, trying to reject them as if they were foreign bodies. In the process, the parathyroid glands stop manufacturing their hormone.
- Hereditary hypoparathyroidism. In this form, either the parathyroid glands aren't present at birth, or they don't work properly. Some types of hereditary hypoparathyroidism are associated with deficiencies of other hormone-producing glands.
- Extensive cancer radiation treatment of your face or neck. Radiation can result in destruction of your parathyroid glands, as can radioactive iodine treatment for hyperthyroidism, occasionally.
- Low levels of magnesium in your blood, which can affect the function of your parathyroid glands. Normal serum magnesium levels are required for optimum secretion of parathyroid hormone.
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- Fong J, et al. Hypocalcemia: Updates in diagnosis and management for primary care. Canadian Family Physician. 2012;58:158.
- Bilezikian JP, et al. Hypoparathyroidism in the adult: Epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, target-organ involvement, treatment and challenges for future research. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2011;26:2317.