You may be at an increased risk of primary hyperparathyroidism if you:
Dec. 24, 2015
- Are a woman who has gone through menopause
- Have had prolonged, severe calcium or vitamin D deficiency
- Have a rare, inherited disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia, type I, which usually affects multiple glands
- Have had radiation treatment for cancer that has exposed your neck to radiation
- Have taken lithium, a drug most often used to treat bipolar disorder
- Primary hyperparathyroidism. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service. http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/hyper/. Accessed Feb. 15, 2014.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2014: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 15, 2014.
- El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Pathogenesis and etiology of primary hyperthyroidism. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 15, 2014.
- Papadakis MA, et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2014. 53rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed Feb. 15, 2014.
- Bilezikian JP, et al. Guidelines for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: Summary statement from the third international workshop. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2009;94:335.
- Hormone replacement therapy. Micromedex 2.0 Healthcare Series. http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed Feb. 15, 2014.
- Vitamin D: Fact sheet for consumers. Office of Dietary Supplements. http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-QuickFacts. Accessed Feb. 15, 2014.
- Calcium: Fact sheet for consumers. Office of Dietary Supplements. http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-QuickFacts. Accessed Feb. 15, 2014.
- Smoking and bone health. NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases — National Resource Center. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/Conditions_Behaviors/bone_smoking.asp. Accessed Feb. 15, 2014.
- Korkmaz HA, et al. Neonatal seizure as a manifestation of unrecognized maternal hyperparathyroidism. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. 2013;5:206.
- Nippoldt TB (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 28, 2014.