Men are much more likely to develop long-term hiccups than are women. Other factors that may increase your risk of hiccups include:
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- Mental or emotional issues. Anxiety, stress and excitement have been associated with some cases of short-term and long-term hiccups.
- Surgery. Some people develop hiccups after undergoing general anesthesia or after procedures that involve abdominal organs.
- Bope ET, et al. Conn's Current Therapy. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 23, 2014.
- Walsh D, et al. Palliative Medicine. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2009. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 23, 2014.
- Lembo AJ. Overview of hiccups. http://uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 23, 2014.
- George J, et al. Hyponatremia and hiccups. National Medical Journal of India. 1996;9:107.