5. Choose low-fat protein sources
Lean meat, poultry and fish, low-fat dairy products, and egg whites or egg substitutes are some of your best sources of protein. But be careful to choose lower fat options, such as skim milk rather than whole milk and skinless chicken breasts rather than fried chicken patties.
Fish is another good alternative to high-fat meats. And certain types of fish are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which can lower blood fats called triglycerides. You'll find the highest amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in cold-water fish, such as salmon, mackerel and herring. Other sources are flaxseed, walnuts, soybeans and canola oil.
Legumes — beans, peas and lentils — also are good sources of protein and contain less fat and no cholesterol, making them good substitutes for meat. Substituting plant protein for animal protein — for example, a soy or bean burger for a hamburger — will reduce your fat and cholesterol intake.
|Proteins to choose ||Proteins to limit or avoid
- Low-fat dairy products such as skim or low-fat (1%) milk, yogurt and cheese
- Egg whites or egg substitutes
- Fish, especially fatty, cold-water fish, such as salmon
- Skinless poultry
- Soybeans and soy products, for example, soy burgers and tofu
- Lean ground meats
- Full-fat milk and other dairy products
- Organ meats, such as liver
- Egg yolks
- Fatty and marbled meats
- Cold cuts
- Hot dogs and sausages
- Fried or breaded meats
6. Reduce the sodium in your food
Eating a lot of sodium can contribute to high blood pressure, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Reducing sodium is an important part of a heart-healthy diet. The Department of Agriculture recommends:
- Healthy adults have no more than 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium a day (about a teaspoon)
- People age 51 or older, African-Americans, and people who have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, diabetes or chronic kidney disease have no more than 1,500 mg of sodium a day
Although reducing the amount of salt you add to food at the table or while cooking is a good first step, much of the salt you eat comes from canned or processed foods, such as soups and frozen dinners. Eating fresh foods and making your own soups and stews can reduce the amount of salt you eat. If you like the convenience of canned soups and prepared meals, look for ones with reduced sodium. Be wary of foods that claim to be lower in sodium because they are seasoned with sea salt instead of regular table salt — sea salt has the same nutritional value as regular salt.
Another way to reduce the amount of salt you eat is to choose your condiments carefully. Many condiments are available in reduced-sodium versions, and salt substitutes can add flavor to your food with less sodium.
|Low-salt items to choose ||High-salt items to avoid
- Herbs and spices
- Salt substitutes
- Reduced-salt canned soups or prepared meals
- Reduced-salt versions of condiments, such as reduced-salt soy sauce and reduced-salt ketchup
- Table salt
- Canned soups and prepared foods, such as frozen dinners
- Tomato juice
- Soy sauce
7. Plan ahead: Create daily menus
You know what foods to feature in your heart-healthy diet and which ones to limit. Now it's time to put your plans into action.
Create daily menus using the six strategies listed above. When selecting foods for each meal and snack, emphasize vegetables, fruits and whole grains. Choose lean protein sources and limit high-fat and salty foods. Watch your portion sizes and add variety to your menu choices. For example, if you have grilled salmon one evening, try a black-bean burger the next night. This helps ensure that you'll get all of the nutrients your body needs. Variety also makes your meals and snacks more interesting.
8. Allow yourself an occasional treat
Allow yourself an indulgence every now and then. A candy bar or handful of potato chips won't derail your heart-healthy diet. But don't let it turn into an excuse for giving up on your healthy-eating plan. If overindulgence is the exception, rather than the rule, you'll balance things out over the long term. What's important is that you eat healthy foods most of the time.
Incorporate these eight tips into your life, and you'll continue to find that heart-healthy eating is both doable and enjoyable. With planning and a few simple substitutions, you can eat with your heart in mind.
Apr. 20, 2012
See more In-depth
- Lichtenstein AH, et al. Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation. 2006;114:82.
- Know your fats. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/PreventionTreatmentofHighCholesterol/Know-Your-Fats_UCM_305628_Article.jsp. Accessed Feb. 7, 2012.
- Trans fats. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/PreventionTreatmentofHighCholesterol/Know-Your-Fats_UCM_305628_Article.jsp. Accessed Feb. 7, 2012.
- Pimenta E, et al. Effects of dietary sodium reduction on blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension: Results from a randomized trial. Hypertension. 2009;54:475.
- What are grains? U.S. Department of Agriculture. http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/grains.html Accessed Feb. 7, 2012.
- Nutrition for everyone: Using fruits and vegetables to manage your weight. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/nutrition/pdf/CDC_5-A-Day.pdf. Accessed Feb. 7, 2012.
- How to avoid portion size pitfalls to help manage your weight. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/healthy_eating/portion_size.html Accessed Feb. 7, 2012.
- Flaxseed and flaxseed oil. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/flaxseed/D313_herbs.pdf. Accessed Feb. 7, 2012.
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm. Accessed Feb. 8, 2012.
- Most Americans don't understand health effects of wine and sea salt, survey finds. American Heart Association. http://newsroom.heart.org/pr/aha/1316.aspx. Accessed Feb. 7, 2012.