Strategies to prevent heart disease
You can prevent heart disease by following a heart-healthy lifestyle. Here are strategies to help you protect your heart.By Mayo Clinic Staff
Heart disease may be a leading cause of death, but that doesn't mean you have to accept it as your fate. Although you lack the power to change some risk factors — such as family history, sex or age — there are some key heart disease prevention steps you can take.
You can avoid heart problems in the future by adopting a healthy lifestyle today. Here are six heart disease prevention tips to get you started.
1. Don't smoke or use tobacco
Smoking or using tobacco of any kind is one of the most significant risk factors for developing heart disease. Chemicals in tobacco can damage your heart and blood vessels, leading to narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Atherosclerosis can ultimately lead to a heart attack.
Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke replaces some of the oxygen in your blood. This increases your blood pressure and heart rate by forcing your heart to work harder to supply enough oxygen. Women who smoke and take birth control pills are at greater risk of having a heart attack or stroke than are those who don't do either because both smoking and taking birth control pills increase the risk of blood clots.
When it comes to heart disease prevention, no amount of smoking is safe. But, the more you smoke, the greater your risk. Smokeless tobacco and low-tar and low-nicotine cigarettes also are risky, as is exposure to secondhand smoke. Even so-called "social smoking" — smoking only while at a bar or restaurant with friends — is dangerous and increases the risk of heart disease.
The good news, though, is that when you quit smoking, your risk of heart disease drops almost to that of a nonsmoker in about five years. And no matter how long or how much you smoked, you'll start reaping rewards as soon as you quit.
2. Exercise for 30 minutes on most days of the week
Getting some regular, daily exercise can reduce your risk of fatal heart disease. And when you combine physical activity with other lifestyle measures, such as maintaining a healthy weight, the payoff is even greater.
Physical activity helps you control your weight and can reduce your chances of developing other conditions that may put a strain on your heart, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes.
Try getting at least 30 to 60 minutes of moderately intense physical activity most days of the week. However, even shorter amounts of exercise offer heart benefits, so if you can't meet those guidelines, don't give up. You can even get the same health benefits if you break up your workout time into three 10-minute sessions most days of the week.
And remember that activities, such as gardening, housekeeping, taking the stairs and walking the dog all count toward your total. You don't have to exercise strenuously to achieve benefits, but you can see bigger benefits by increasing the intensity, duration and frequency of your workouts.
3. Eat a heart-healthy diet
Eating a healthy diet can reduce your risk of heart disease. Two examples of heart-healthy food plans include the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan and the Mediterranean diet.
A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains can help protect your heart. Beans, other low-fat sources of protein and certain types of fish also can reduce your risk of heart disease.
Limiting certain fats you eat also is important. Of the types of fat — saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and trans fat — saturated fat and trans fat are the ones to try to limit or avoid. Try to keep saturated fat to no more than 10 percent of your daily calories. And, try to keep trans fat out of your diet altogether.
Major sources of saturated fat include:
- Red meat
- Dairy products
- Coconut and palm oils
Sources of trans fat include:
- Deep-fried fast foods
- Bakery products
- Packaged snack foods
If the nutrition label has the term "partially hydrogenated," it means that product contains trans fat.
Heart-healthy eating isn't all about cutting back, though. Healthy fats from plant-based sources, such as avocado, nuts, olives and olive oil, help your heart by lowering the bad type of cholesterol.
Most people need to add more fruits and vegetables to their diet — with a goal of five to 10 servings a day. Eating that many fruits and vegetables can not only help prevent heart disease but also may help prevent cancer and improve diabetes.
Eating several servings a week of certain fish, such as salmon and mackerel, may decrease your risk of heart attack.
Following a heart-healthy diet also means keeping an eye on how much alcohol you drink. If you choose to drink alcohol, it's better for your heart to do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger. At that moderate level, alcohol can have a protective effect on your heart. More than that becomes a health hazard.
Feb. 14, 2014
See more In-depth
- Mellett LH, et al. Heart-healthy exercise. Circulation. 2013;127:e571.
- Understand your risk of heart attack. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/UnderstandYourRiskofHeartAttack/Understand-Your-Risk-of-Heart-Attack_UCM_002040_Article.jsp. Accessed Sept. 6, 2013.
- Erhardt L. Cigarette smoking: An undertreated risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2009;205:23.
- Low yield cigarettes. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/tobacco_industry/low_yield_cigarettes/. Accessed Sept. 9, 2013.
- Hennekens CH. Overview of primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 7, 2013.
- Hennekens CH, et al. Secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 7, 2013.
- Estruch R, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;368:1279.
- Your guide to lowering blood pressure with DASH. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/hbp/dash/new_dash.pdf. Accessed Sept. 9, 2013.
- Fats. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/fat-and-diabetes.html?print=t. Accessed Sept. 9, 2013.
- De Waure C, et al. Lifestyle interventions in patients with coronary heart disease. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013;45:207.
- Dong JY, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular risk: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Atherosclerosis. 2013;229:489.
- How much sleep do we really need? National Sleep Foundation. http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/how-sleep-works/how-much-sleep-do-we-really-need. Accessed Sept. 9, 2013.
- What is sleep apnea? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sleepapnea/printall-index.html. Accessed Sept. 9, 2013.
- Pataka A, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure and cardiovascular events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Current Cardiology Reports. 2013;15:385.
- Carpio C, et al. Epidemiological and pathogenic relationship between sleep apnea and ischemic heart disease. Pulmonary Medicine. 2013;2013:1.
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for high blood pressure: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf07/hbp/hbprs.htm. Accessed Sept. 9, 2013.
- Screening for lipid disorders in adults: Recommendation statement. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf08/lipid/lipidrs.htm. Accessed Sept. 9, 2013.
- American Diabetes Association. Position statement: Standards of medical care in diabetes — 2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:s11.