Many people contract H. pylori as children. Contracting H. pylori in adulthood is much less common. Risk factors for H. pylori infection are related to living conditions in your childhood, such as:
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- Living in crowded conditions. You have a greater risk of H. pylori infection if you live in a home with many other people.
- Living without a reliable supply of hot water. Having a reliable hot water supply can help you keep your living area clean and reduce your risk of H. pylori.
- Living in a developing country. People living in developing countries, where crowded and unsanitary living conditions may be more common, have a higher risk of H. pylori infection.
- Living with someone who has an H. pylori infection. If someone you live with has H. pylori, you're more likely to also have H. pylori.
- H. pylori and peptic ulcers. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/hpylori. Accessed March 25, 2011.
- Peura DA, et al. Helicobacter pylori. In: Feldman M, et al. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4160-6189-2..X0001-7--TOP&isbn=978-1-4160-6189-2&about=true&uniqId=229935664-2192. Accessed March 25, 2011.
- Crowe SE. Bacteriology and epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed March 25, 2011.
- Tryforos M. Helicobacter pylori infection. In: Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2011: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05610-6..C2009-0-38600-6--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05610-6&about=true&uniqId=230100505-53. Accessed March 28, 2011.
- Malagelada JR, et al. Acid peptic disease: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. In: Goldman L, et al. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/191371208-2/0/1492/0.html#. Accessed March 28, 2011.
- Crowe SE. Treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed March 25, 2011.
- Talley NJ, et al. Gastric cancer consensus conference recommends Helicobacter pylori screening and treatment in asymptomatic persons from high-risk populations to prevent gastric cancer. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008;103:510.