H. pylori is often contracted in childhood. Risk factors for H. pylori infection are related to living conditions in your childhood, such as:
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- Living in crowded conditions. You have a greater risk of H. pylori infection if you live in a home with many other people.
- Living without a reliable supply of clean water. Having a reliable supply of clean, running water helps reduce the risk of H. pylori.
- Living in a developing country. People living in developing countries, where crowded and unsanitary living conditions may be more common, have a higher risk of H. pylori infection.
- Living with someone who has an H. pylori infection. If someone you live with has H. pylori, you're more likely to also have H. pylori.
- H. pylori and peptic ulcers. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/hpylori/. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Papadakis MA, ed., et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2014. 53rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed Dec. 31, 2013.
- Helicobacter pylori infection. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal_disorders/gastritis_and_peptic_ulcer_disease/helicobacter_pylorihelicobacter_pylori_infection.html. Accessed Jan. 3, 2014.
- Helicobacter pylori and cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/h-pylori-cancer. Accessed Jan. 3, 2014.
- Chey W, et al. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Bethesda, Md.: American College of Gastroenterology. http://gi.org/guideline/management-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection/. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Crowe SE. Bacteriology and epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
- Crowe SE. Indications and diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 30, 2013.
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