Gynecomastia (guy-nuh-koh-MAS-tee-uh) is swelling of the breast tissue in boys or men, caused by an imbalance of the hormones estrogen and testosterone. Gynecomastia can affect one or both breasts, sometimes unevenly. Newborns, boys going through puberty and older men may develop gynecomastia as a result of normal changes in hormone levels, though other causes also exist.
Generally, gynecomastia isn't a serious problem, but it can be tough to cope with the condition. Men and boys with gynecomastia sometimes have pain in their breasts and may feel embarrassed.
Gynecomastia may go away on its own. If it persists, medication or surgery may help.
Aug. 29, 2017
- Braunstein GD. Clinical features, diagnosis, and evaluation of gynecomastia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 27, 2016.
- Braunstein GD. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and causes of gynecomastia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 27, 2016.
- Braunstein GD. Management of gynecomastia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 27, 2016.
- Longo DL, et al., eds. Disorders of the testes and male reproductive system. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed July 27, 2016.
- Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Endocrine disorders. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2016. 55th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2016. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed July 27, 2016.
- Gynecomastia. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/male-reproductive-endocrinology-and-related-disorders/gynecomastia. Accessed July 27, 2016.
- AskMayoExpert. Gynecomastia. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
Enlarged breasts in men (gynecomastia)