Although the exact cause is unknown, certain factors may increase your risk of developing frozen shoulder.
Age and sex
People 40 and older are more likely to experience frozen shoulder. Most of the people who develop the condition are women.
Immobility or reduced mobility
People who have experienced prolonged immobility or reduced mobility of their shoulder are at higher risk of developing frozen shoulder. Immobility may be the result of many factors, including:
- Rotator cuff injury
- Broken arm
- Recovery from surgery
People who have certain medical problems appear to be predisposed to develop frozen shoulder. Examples include:
Apr. 28, 2011
- Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
- Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)
- Cardiovascular disease
- Parkinson's disease
- Miller RH, et al. Adhesive capsulitis. In: Canale ST, et al. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-4/0/1584/0.html. Accessed Feb. 4, 2011.
- Frozen shoulder. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00071. Accessed Feb. 4, 2011.
- Anderson BC. Frozen shoulder. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Feb. 4, 2011.
- Krabik BJ, et al. Adhesive capsulitis. In: Frontera WR, et al. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1678/0.html. Accessed Feb. 4, 2011.
- Acupuncture: An introduction. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/acupuncture/introduction.htm. Accessed Feb. 10, 2011.
- Podichetty VK, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. In: Walsh D, et al. Palliative Medicine. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?sid=1116301723&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05674-8..50252-8--cesec9&isbn=978-0-323-05674-8&type=bookPage§ionEid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05674-8..50252-8--cesec9&uniqId=235264301-3. Accessed Feb. 10, 2011.
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