The bones, ligaments and tendons that make up your shoulder joint are encased in a capsule of connective tissue. Frozen shoulder occurs when this capsule thickens and tightens around the shoulder joint, restricting its movement.
Doctors aren't sure why this happens to some people, although it's more likely to occur in people who have diabetes or those who recently had to immobilize their shoulder for a long period, such as after surgery or an arm fracture.
March 10, 2015
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- DeSantana JM, et al. Effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for treatment of hyperalgesia and pain. Current Rheumatology Reports. 2008;10:492.