The diagnosis of frostbite is usually apparent based on your signs and symptoms, appearance of your skin, and recent exposure to cold.
Your doctor may conduct tests, such as an X-ray, bone scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test, to determine the severity of the frostbite and to check if bone or muscle is damaged. Your doctor may also run tests if he or she suspects you have hypothermia, a condition that often occurs with frostbite.
Oct. 15, 2014
- Goldsmith LA, et al., eds. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/book.aspx?bookid=392. Accessed June 30, 2014.
- Mechem CC, et al. Frostbite. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 30, 2014.
- AskMayoExpert. Frostbite. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
- Winter weather frequently asked questions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/winter/faq.asp#frostbite. Accessed July 1, 2014.
- Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 30, 2014.
- Frostbite. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://naturaldatabase.com. Accessed June 30, 2014.
- McIntosh SE, et al. Wilderness medical society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 2011;22:156.
- Bergeron MF, et al. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on thermoregulatory and altitude challenges for high-level athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2012;46:770.
- Miller T. Preparing for cold weather exercise. Performance Training Journal. 2010;3:1.
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