Fever occurs when an area in your brain called the hypothalamus (hi-poe-THAL-uh-muhs) — also known as your body's "thermostat" — shifts the set point of your normal body temperature upward. When this happens, you may feel chilled and add layers of clothing or wrap up in a blanket, or you may shiver to generate more body heat, eventually resulting in an elevated body temperature.
Normal body temperature varies throughout the day — it's lower in the morning and higher in the late afternoon and evening. Although most people consider 98.6 F (37 C) normal, your body temperature can vary by a degree or more — from about 97 F (36.1 C) to 99 F (37.2 C) — and still be considered normal. Factors such as your menstrual cycle or heavy exercise can affect your temperature.
Fever or elevated body temperature might be caused by:
- A virus
- A bacterial infection
- Heat exhaustion
- Extreme sunburn
- Certain inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis — inflammation of the lining of your joints (synovium)
- A malignant tumor
- Some medications, such as antibiotics and drugs used to treat high blood pressure or seizures
- Some immunizations, such as the diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) or pneumococcal vaccine
Sometimes the cause of a fever can't be identified. If you have a temperature of 101 F (38.3 C) or higher for more than three weeks and your doctor isn't able to find the cause after extensive evaluation, the diagnosis may be fever of unknown origin.
May 29, 2014
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- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 4, 2014.
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