Most dwarfism treatments don't increase stature but may correct or relieve problems caused by complications.
Surgical procedures that may correct problems in people with disproportionate dwarfism include:
- Correcting the direction in which bones are growing
- Stabilizing and correcting the shape of the spine
- Increasing the size of the opening in bones of the spine (vertebrae) to alleviate pressure on the spinal cord
- Placing a shunt to remove excess fluid around the brain (hydrocephalus), if it occurs
Some people with dwarfism choose to undergo surgery called extended limb lengthening. This procedure is controversial for many people with dwarfism because, as with all surgeries, there are risks. Because of the emotional and physical stress of multiple procedures, waiting until the person with dwarfism is old enough to participate in the decision to have the surgery is recommended.
For individuals with dwarfism due to growth hormone deficiency, treatment with injections of a synthetic version of the hormone may increase final height. In most cases, children receive daily injections for several years until they reach a maximum adult height — often within the average adult range for their family.
Treatment may continue throughout the teen years and early adulthood to ensure adult maturation, such as appropriate gain in muscle or fat. Some individuals may need lifelong therapy. The treatment may be supplemented with other related hormones if they are also deficient.
Treatment for girls with Turner syndrome also requires estrogen and related hormone therapy in order for them to begin puberty and achieve adult sexual development. Estrogen replacement therapy usually continues throughout life until a woman reaches the average age of menopause.
Growth hormone supplementation for children with achondroplasia does not increase final adult height.
Ongoing health care
Regular checkups and ongoing care by a doctor familiar with dwarfism can improve quality of life. Because of the range of symptoms and complications, treatments are tailored to address problems as they occur, such as assessment and treatment for ear infections, spinal stenosis or sleep apnea.
Adults with dwarfism should continue to be monitored and treated for problems that occur throughout life.
Sept. 11, 2014
- Bang GM, et al. "Ocular moyamoya" syndrome in a patient with features of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2013;17:100.
- Frequently asked questions. Little People of America. http://www.lpaonline.org/faq-. Accessed Aug. 3, 2014.
- Achondroplasia. Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/achondroplasia. Accessed Aug. 5, 2014.
- Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/spondyloepiphyseal-dysplasia-congenita. Accessed Aug. 5, 2014.
- Rogol AD. Causes of short stature. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 5, 2014.
- Isolated growth hormone deficiency. Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/isolated-growth-hormone-deficiency. Accessed Aug. 5, 2014.
- Turner syndrome. Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/turner-syndrome. Accessed Aug. 5, 2014.
- Learning about Turner syndrome. National Human Genome Research Institute. http://www.genome.gov/19519119. Accessed Aug. 5, 2014.
- Pauli RM. Achondroplasia. GeneReviews. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1152/. Accessed Aug. 5, 2014.
- Wright MJ, et al. Clinical management of achondroplasia. Archives of Diseases in Childhood. 2012;97:129.
- Ireland PJ, et al. Optimal management of complications associated with achondroplasia. The Application of Clinical Genetics. 2014;7:117.
- Hypopituitarism in children resulting in short stature. The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine_and_metabolic_disorders/pituitary_disorders/hypopituitarism_in_children_resulting_in_short_stature.html?qt=&sc=&alt=. Accessed Aug. 5, 2014.
- Deyle DR (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 25, 2014.
- Bodensteiner JB (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 29, 2014.