Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fruity-scented breath
  • Confusion

More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include:

  • High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia)
  • High ketone levels in your urine

When to see a doctor

If you feel ill or stressed, or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit.

Contact your doctor immediately if:

  • You're vomiting and unable to tolerate any food or liquid
  • Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment
  • Your urine ketone level is moderate or high

Seek emergency care if:

  • Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 millimoles per liter (mmol/L)
  • You have ketones in your urine and can't reach your doctor for advice
  • You have multiple signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis — excessive thirst or frequent urination, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, fruity-scented breath, confusion

Remember, untreated diabetic ketoacidosis can be fatal.

Oct. 23, 2012