SSRIs are relatively safe. However, here are some examples of safety issues to be considered:
- Antidepressants and pregnancy. Some antidepressants may harm your child if you take them during pregnancy or while you're breast-feeding. Paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva) in particular appears to increase the risk of birth defects, including heart and lung problems. If you're taking an antidepressant and you're considering getting pregnant, talk to your doctor or mental health provider about the possible dangers. Don't stop taking your medication without contacting your doctor first.
- Drug interactions. When taking an antidepressant, be sure to tell your doctor about any other medications or dietary supplements you're taking. Some antidepressants can cause dangerous reactions when combined with certain medications or herbal remedies.
- Abnormal bleeding. Use of some pain relievers, such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen sodium (Aleve, others), or anticoagulants, such as warfarin (Coumadin), may increase the risk of bleeding when combined with SSRIs. Talk to your doctor about the risks of using these medications in combination.
- Serotonin syndrome. Rarely, an SSRI can cause dangerously high levels of serotonin. This is known as serotonin syndrome. It occurs when two medications that raise serotonin are combined. These include other antidepressants, certain pain or headache medications, and the herbal supplement St. John's wort. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include anxiety, agitation, sweating, confusion, tremors, restlessness, lack of coordination and rapid heart rate. Seek immediate medical attention if you have any of these signs or symptoms.
Suicide risk and antidepressants
Most antidepressants are generally safe, but the FDA requires that all antidepressants carry black box warnings, the strictest warnings for prescriptions. In some cases, children, teenagers and young adults under 25 may have an increase in suicidal thoughts or behavior when taking antidepressants, especially in the first few weeks after starting or when the dose is changed.
Anyone taking an antidepressant should be watched closely for worsening depression or unusual behavior. If you or someone you know has suicidal thoughts when taking an antidepressant, immediately contact your doctor or get emergency help.
Keep in mind that antidepressants are more likely to reduce suicide risk in the long run by improving mood.
Stopping treatment with SSRIs
SSRIs aren't considered addictive, but sometimes physical dependence, which is different from addiction, can occur. So stopping treatment abruptly or missing several doses can cause withdrawal-like symptoms. This is sometimes called discontinuation syndrome. Work with your doctor to gradually and safely decrease your dose.
Withdrawal-like symptoms can include:
- Flu-like symptoms
Finding the right antidepressant
Each person may react differently to a particular antidepressant and may be more susceptible to certain side effects. Because of this, one antidepressant may work better for you than another, or your doctor may prescribe a combination.
When choosing an antidepressant, your doctor will take into account your particular symptoms, what health problems you have, what other medications you take, what has worked for you in the past and what has worked for a close relative with depression.
Inherited traits play a role in how antidepressants affect you. In some cases, where available, results of special blood tests may offer clues about how your body may respond to a particular antidepressant. The study of how genes affect a person's response to drugs is called pharmacogenomics. However, other variables besides genetics can affect your response to medication.
Typically, it may take several weeks or longer before an antidepressant is fully effective and for initial side effects to ease up. You may need to try several dose adjustments or different antidepressants before you find the right one, but hang in there. With patience, you and your doctor can find a medication that works well for you.
Jul. 09, 2013
See more In-depth
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- What is pharmacogenomics? Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/genomicresearch/pharmacogenomics. Accessed May 30, 2013.
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