Safety issues

SSRIs are generally safe for most people. However, in some circumstances they can cause problems. For example, high doses of citalopram may cause dangerous abnormal heart rhythms, so doses over 40 milligrams (mg) a day should be avoided, according to the FDA and the manufacturer. They also recommend a maximum dose of 20 mg for people over age 60.

Other issues to discuss with your doctor before you take an SSRI include:

  • Drug interactions. When taking an antidepressant, tell your doctor about any other prescription or over-the-counter medications, herbs or other supplements you're taking. Some antidepressants can cause dangerous reactions when combined with certain medications or herbal supplements.
  • Serotonin syndrome. Rarely, an antidepressant can cause high levels of serotonin to accumulate in your body. Serotonin syndrome most often occurs when two medications that raise the level of serotonin are combined. These include other antidepressants, certain pain or headache medications, and the herbal supplement St. John's wort. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include anxiety, agitation, sweating, confusion, tremors, restlessness, lack of coordination and a rapid heart rate. Seek immediate medical attention if you have any of these signs or symptoms.
  • Antidepressants and pregnancy. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of using specific antidepressants. Some antidepressants may harm your baby if you take them during pregnancy or while you're breast-feeding. If you're taking an antidepressant and you're considering getting pregnant, talk to your doctor about the possible risks. Don't stop taking your medication without contacting your doctor first, as stopping might pose risks for you.

Suicide risk and antidepressants

Most antidepressants are generally safe, but the FDA requires that all antidepressants carry black box warnings, the strictest warnings for prescriptions. In some cases, children, teenagers and young adults under 25 may have an increase in suicidal thoughts or behavior when taking antidepressants, especially in the first few weeks after starting or when the dose is changed.

Anyone taking an antidepressant should be watched closely for worsening depression or unusual behavior. If you or someone you know has suicidal thoughts when taking an antidepressant, immediately contact your doctor or get emergency help.

Keep in mind that antidepressants are more likely to reduce suicide risk in the long run by improving mood.

Stopping treatment with SSRIs

SSRIs aren't considered addictive. However, stopping antidepressant treatment abruptly or missing several doses can cause withdrawal-like symptoms. This is sometimes called discontinuation syndrome. Work with your doctor to gradually and safely decrease your dose.

Withdrawal-like symptoms can include:

  • General feeling of uneasiness
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Lethargy
  • Flu-like symptoms

Finding the right antidepressant

People may react differently to the same antidepressant. For example, a particular drug may work better — or not as well — for you than for another person. Or you may have more, or fewer, side effects from taking a specific antidepressant than someone else does.

Inherited traits play a role in how antidepressants affect you. In some cases, where available, results of special blood tests may offer clues about how your body may respond to a particular antidepressant. However, other variables besides genetics can affect your response to medication.

When choosing an antidepressant, your doctor takes into account your symptoms, any health problems, other medications you take and what has worked for you in the past.

Typically, it may take several weeks or longer before an antidepressant is fully effective and for initial side effects to ease up. You may need to try several dose adjustments or different antidepressants before you find the right one, but hang in there. With patience, you and your doctor can find a medication that works well for you.

June 24, 2016 See more In-depth