If you have symptoms of cystitis, talk to your doctor as soon as possible. In addition to discussing your signs and symptoms and your medical history, your doctor may order these tests:
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- Urine analysis. If it's suspected that you have a bladder infection, your doctor may ask for a urine sample to determine whether bacteria, blood or pus is in your urine.
- Cystoscopy. Inspection of your bladder with a cystoscope — a thin tube with a light and camera attached that can be inserted through the urethra into your bladder — may help with the diagnosis. Your doctor can also use the cystoscope to remove a small sample of tissue (biopsy) for analysis in the lab. This test most likely won't be needed if this is the first time you've had signs or symptoms of cystitis.
- Imaging tests. Imaging tests usually aren't necessary, but in some instances — especially when no evidence of infection is found — they may be helpful. For example, an X-ray or ultrasound may help rule out other potential causes of bladder inflammation, such as a tumor or structural abnormality.
- Katz VL, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-06986-1..C2009-0-48752-X--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-06986-1&uniqId=325227117-5. Accessed March 22, 2012.
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- Hooton TM. Acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed March 22, 2012.
- Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. National Kidney & Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/interstitialcystitis/. Accessed March 22, 2012.
- French L, et al. Urinary problems in women. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2009;36:53.
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- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2012: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05611-3..C2009-0-38601-8--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05611-3&uniqId=291436269-101. Accessed March 26, 2012.
- Brenner BM. Brenner & Rector's The Kidney. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4160-6193-9..C2010-1-67932-1--TOP&isbn=978-1-4160-6193-9&uniqId=321553651-265. Accessed March 26, 2012.
- Tanagho EA, et al. Smith's General Urology. 17th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2008. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=3130813. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- Gupta K, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Disease Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2011;52:e103.
- Cranberry. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- Castle EP (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Ariz. April 11, 2012.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed April 4, 2012.