Bladder stones that aren't removed — even those that don't cause symptoms — can lead to complications, such as:
Aug. 14, 2013
- Chronic bladder dysfunction. Left untreated, bladder stones can cause long-term urinary problems, such as pain or frequent urination. Bladder stones can also lodge in the opening where urine exits the bladder into the urethra and block the passage of urine from your body.
- Urinary tract infections. Recurring bacterial infections in your urinary tract may be caused by bladder stones.
- Tanagho EA, et al. Smith's General Urology. 17th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2008. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=21. Accessed June 17, 2013.
- Urinary calculi. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary_disorders/urinary_calculi/urinary_calculi.html. Accessed June 17, 2013.
- Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05472-0..X0001-1--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05472-0&uniqId=230100505-57. Accessed June 17, 2013.
- Tintinalli JE, et al. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=40. Accessed June 17, 2013.
- Wein AJ, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1445/0.html. Accessed June 18, 2013.
- Kidney and ureteral stones: Surgical management. American Urological Association. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=32. Accessed June 18, 2013.
- Curhan GC, et al. Diagnosis and acute management of suspected nephrolithiasis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 18, 2013.
- Rakel D. Integrative Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-2/0/1494/0.html. Accessed June 19, 2013.
- Castle EP (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale/Phoenix, Ariz. July 12, 2013.
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