The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but several factors may be involved, such as:
July 06, 2016
- Biological differences. People with bipolar disorder appear to have physical changes in their brains. The significance of these changes is still uncertain but may eventually help pinpoint causes.
- Neurotransmitters. An imbalance in naturally occurring brain chemicals called neurotransmitters seems to play a significant role in bipolar disorder and other mood disorders.
- Inherited traits. Bipolar disorder is more common in people who have a first-degree relative, such as a sibling or parent, with the condition. Researchers are trying to find genes that may be involved in causing bipolar disorder.
- Bipolar and related disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. American Psychiatric Publishing. http://www.dsm5.org/Pages/Default.aspx. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Depression. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression/index.shtml. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Culpepper L. The diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder: Decision-making in primary care. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195640/. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents/index.shtml. Accessed Dec. 11, 2014.
- Symbyax (prescribing information). Indianapolis, Ind.: Eli Lilly and Company; 2009. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2014/021520s041lbl.pdf. Accessed Dec. 11, 2014.
- Thronson LR, et al. Psychopharmacology. Medical Clinics of North America. 2014;98:927.
- Ravindran AV, et al. Complementary and alternative therapies as add-ons to pharmacotherapy for mood and anxiety disorders: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2013;150:707.
- Sarris J, et al. Bipolar disorder and complementary medicine: Current evidence, safety issues, and clinical considerations. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2011;17:881.
- Bipolar disorder in adults. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder/complete-index.shtml. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Bipolar disorder in children and teens. National Alliance on Mental Illness. http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=13107. Access Dec. 11, 2014.
- Bipolar disorder. National Alliance on Mental Illness. http://www.nami.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Mental_Illnesses/Bipolar1/Home_-_What_is_Bipolar_Disorder_.htm. Accessed Dec. 10, 2014.
- Cook, AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 24, 2014.
- Birmaher B. Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and course. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 11, 2014.
- Veldic M (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 21, 2014.
- Picardi A, et al. Psychotherapy of mood disorders. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health. 2014;10:140.
- Frye MA, et al. Current landscape, unmet needs and future directions for treatment of bipolar depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014;169S1:S17.
- Frye MA. Clinical practice. Bipolar disorder — A focus on depression. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;364:51.