Most cases of acute sinusitis don't need treatment because they're caused by viruses that also cause the common cold. Self-care techniques are usually the only treatment needed to speed recovery and ease symptoms.
Treatments to relieve symptoms
Your doctor may recommend treatments to help relieve sinusitis symptoms, including:
- Saline nasal spray, which you spray into your nose several times a day to rinse your nasal passages.
- Nasal corticosteroids. These nasal sprays help prevent and treat inflammation. Examples include fluticasone (Flonase), mometasone (Nasonex), budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua), triamcinolone (Nasacort AQ) and beclomethasone (Beconase AQ).
- Decongestants. These medications are available in over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription liquids, tablets and nasal sprays. OTC oral decongestants include Sudafed, Actifed and Drixoral. Nasal sprays include oxymetazoline (Afrin, others). These medications are generally taken for only a few days at most. Otherwise they can cause the return of more severe congestion (rebound congestion).
- Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others). Aspirin has been linked with Reye's syndrome, so use caution when giving aspirin to children or teenagers. Though aspirin is approved for use in children older than age 2, children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms should never take aspirin. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns.
Antibiotics usually aren't needed to treat acute sinusitis.
- Antibiotics won't help when acute sinusitis is caused by a viral or fungal infection.
- Most cases of bacterial sinusitis improve without antibiotics.
- Antibiotic treatment is generally needed only if the infection is severe, recurrent or persistent.
Antibiotics used to treat acute sinusitis caused by a bacterial infection include amoxicillin (Amoxil, others), doxycycline (Doryx, Monodox, others) or the combination drug trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra, others). If the infection doesn't go away or if the sinusitis comes back, your doctor may try a different antibiotic.
If your doctor does prescribe antibiotics, it's critical to take the entire course of medication. Generally, this means you'll need to take them for 10 to 14 days — even after your symptoms get better. If you stop taking them early, your symptoms may come back.
Rarely, acute sinusitis is caused by a fungal infection, which can be treated with antifungal medication. The dose of medication — as well as how long you'll need to take it — depends on the severity of your infection and how quickly your symptoms improve.
If allergies are contributing to your sinusitis, allergy shots (immunotherapy) that help reduce the body's reaction to specific allergens may help treat your symptoms.
July 02, 2013
- Sinuses|Sinusitius|Rhinosinusitis. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions-a-to-z-search/sinuses,-sinusitis,-rhinosinusitis.aspx. Accessed March 25, 2013.
- Lalwani AK. Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=39. Accessed March 25, 2013.
- Fact sheet: 20 questions about your sinuses. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. http://www.entnet.org/HealthInformation/sinuses.cfm. Accessed March 31, 2013.
- Aring AM, et al. Acute rhinosinusitis in adults. American Family Physician. 2011;83:1057.
- Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM): Prevention & control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/naegleria/prevention.html. Accessed March 24, 2013.
- Meltzer EO, et al. Rhiosinusitis diagnosis and management for the clinician: A synopsis of recent consensus guidelines. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2011;86:427.
- Hayward G, et al. Intranasal corticosteroids in management of acute sinusitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Family Medicine. 2012;10:241.
- Leung RS, et al. The diagnosis and management of acute and chronic sinusitis. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2008;35:11.
- Sinupret+. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed April 1, 2013.
- SinuGuard. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed April 1, 2013.